2 AcidsAcids are substances that release positively charged hydrogen ions, H+, in the water.H+ will combine with water releasing a positively charged ion called hydronium (H3O)+HYDRONIUM ions + charge - HYDROCHLORIC ACIDHCl + H2O -----> (H3O)+ + Cl-
3 BasesBases are substances that release negatively charged hydroxide ions, OH-, in the water.NaOH +H2O > Na+ + OH- + H2OSODIUM HYDROXIDE H= and OH- is VERY IMPORTANT!!!!!!
4 Strengths of Acids and Bases The strength of an acid depends on how easily the acid will release H+ (hydrogen) ions when in waterThe strength of a base depends on how easily the base will release OH- (hydroxide) ions when in water
5 IndicatorsIndicators are compounds that react with acidic and basic solutions and produce certain colors, depending on the solution’s pH.Indicators help you determine the pH of a solution.
6 *Litmus paper is an indicator It shows if a substance is an acid or a base:Red litmus paper in a base solution turns blueBlue litmus paper in an acid turns red
7 3*Universal IndicatorGives you more information than the Litmus paperbecause gives you the pH value of the substance
8 pH and pH Scale pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is and depends on the concentrationof hydronium and hydroxide ions.“pH stands for percentage hydrogen”
9 pH and pH Scale The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Acidic solutions have pH values below 7.A solution with a pH of 0 is very acidic.A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral.Basic solutions have pH values above 7.
10 Mini Lab 1: Litmus paper In groups. Each group has 2 substances ( vinegar and ammonia), 2 strips of red litmus paper and 2 strips of blue litmus paper.Dip one red strip and one blue inside each one of the substances and record your results on a table.VINEGAR, WATER, baking soda solution , milk of magnesia , ammonia
11 Mini Lab 1: Litmus paper Ammonia Soda Red color ? Blue Acid or Base? ? VINEGAR, WATER, baking soda solution , milk of magnesia , ammonia
12 Mini Lab:Write a paragraph explaining why you obtained such results and if the substances you tested are acids or bases .Explain what is the role of the paper you used during the experiment and why did it changed color.VINEGAR, WATER, baking soda solution , milk of magnesia , ammonia
13 Mini Lab 1: Litmus paper Ammonia Soda Red Turn blue Stay red Blue Stay blueTurn redAcid or Base?baseacidVINEGAR, WATER, baking soda solution , milk of magnesia , ammonia
14 *Properties of Acidic Solutions -sour taste-can conduct electricity because it has ions-are corrosive, which means they break down -certain substances. Many acids can corrode fabric, skin, and paper.-react strongly with certain metals.
15 Uses of Acids Acetic Acid - vinegar and salad dressings Citric Acid in limes, lemons and orangesAscorbic acid – vit CSulfuric acid - fertilizers,steel, paints, and plastics.Acids – batteries
16 Properties of Basic Solutions SlipperyBitter tasteBases are corrosive.can conduct electricity ( have ions)Basic solutions are not as reactive with metals as acidic solutions are.
17 Uses of Bases soaps, ammonia, and many other cleaning products Chalk is basicBlood is basic
18 Neutralization*Neutralization is the chemical reaction of an acid with a base. Ex:NEW SUBSTANCES WILL FORM ACID AND BASE ARE NOT THERE ANYMORE, new substances will not release Hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion, new substances are neutralIt is a chemical reaction because newsubstances are being formed ( salt and water)
19 *How does neutralization occur? Recall that every water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.The reaction of a base and an acid results inwater and a salt . Water has a neutral pH.It is called neutralization because the acid and thebase are not there anymore…….HCl + NaOH NaCl + H20 ( neutral)BOOK MAKES IT TOO COMPLICATED ….. NOTES ARE WHAT YOU SHOUL KNOW