4 Sub-Saharan Africa 630 million Compare: Population Data 1999Africa Total millionSub-Saharan Africa 630 millionCompare:Asia 3,600 million (3.6 billion)Europe millionS. America millionN. America million
8 Population DensityNumerical density: number of persons per total land areaPhysiological density: number of persons per arable land areaAgricultural density: ratio of farm population to the arable land
11 Africa: Regional Population (in Millions) and Urban Percentage
12 World Population Rates Although population rates are declining on a global scale as well as on the African Continent…Africa has the highest average population growth rate among the various world regions.
13 World Population Boom Average Annual Growth Rate -0.2% 0.7% 1% 2% 2.8% 2.3%1%1.4%
14 Population Growth & Fertility Population growth or decline is based on fertility rates in a country.Fertility rates indicate the average number of babies born to each woman of childbearing age in a country, and are usually calculated as annual rates.
15 Cultural Factors in Fertility Lineage continuation and expansionWhat are “patrilineal and matrilineal”Children as “wealth” and assetsAgricultural work is labor (human) intensiveMale-dominant decision makingPolygynyChild fosterage
16 Direct or “Proximate” Factors in Fertility Early marriagePostpartum and peri-partum practicesNatural and pathological sterilityHigh infant mortality ratesHigh maternal mortality rates
17 Programs and Policies to Manage Population Growth in Africa
18 Family Planning Programs Information and communication are being uesd to promote family planning and birth control.This is an education poster in Kenya, East Africa, printed in the local language:It says, “This mother needs Family Planning”
19 Kenya: Nutrition & Health Care Clinics Aim to Decrease Infant Mortality Rate
20 Maternal Deaths by World Region (although still high, Africa’s maternal death rates are lower than in Asia) Source: PRB
21 Programs and Policies to Manage Population Growth Governments in Africa recognize that improvement in the quality of life of their people is an effective means of managing population growth.The following chart relates educational levels of females in several countries to fertility levels.
23 Population Issues Rapid growth rate Rate more critical than absolute numbersFertility rate inversely related to quality of life/economic development. Why?Cultural factors: ‘wealth’ of human capitalEconomic factors: rural/agricultural labor requirements