Major Leaders / Dictators Adolf Hitler Nazi Germany Benito Mussolini Italy
Adolf Hitler Said he could solve his country’s problems Led the political party called the National Socialists, or Nazis The Nazis believed in fascism In 1933 the Nazis took control of Germany fascism Led the country of Italy Was a member of the Fascist party Promised to bring order to Italy and to restore its power Benito Mussolini
Other Major Leaders Hideki Tojo Japanese Prime Minister Winston Churchill British Prime Minister
Other Major Leaders Franklin Delano Roosevelt US President Joseph Stalin Russian Leader
Underlying causes of WWII 1. Treaty of Versailles (p. 315) A.Germany lost land to surrounding nations such as France B. War Reparations* 1) Germany had to pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent) to Allied Countries 2) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson during negotiations for the Treaty *Reparation: the act of making amends or compensation for a wrong.
More underlying causes of WWII 2. World-wide Depression A. The Depression made Germany’s debt even worse B. Desperate people turn to desperate leaders 1) Hitler seemed to provide solutions to Germany’s problems 1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks
More underlying causes of WWII 3. Racism: the idea that one race, or group of people, is better than all others The leaders of Germany, Italy, and Japan believed in racism. Hitler blamed the Jewish people for Germany’s problems and sent many German Jews to prison. 1923 - Wallpapering with German Deutchmarks
Why did the US lean towards isolationism*? Why was the U.S. Isolationist? 1. Great Depression (problems at home) 2. Perceptions of WWI a. WWI did not seem to solve much b. People were horrified by the destruction of WWI Isolationism: the policy that a nation should avoid political and economic relationships with other countries
Germany Invades Poland Great Britain and France formed an alliance known as the Allied Powers, or Allies The Allies tried to stop Germany from invading by signing an agreement with Hitler Hitler promised not to invade any more countries. In return, the Allies agreed to let Germany keep the land it had already taken.
The agreement allowed Germany to march into Poland without fear of an attack because he had signed and agreed. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. September 1939: Germany invaded Poland German troops marching into Warsaw, the capital of Poland.
When Germany attacked Poland, the Allies declared war on Germany.
Italy and Japan son declared war on the Allies. The Allies could not stop the German army. By the end of 1941, Germany controlled most of Europe. Only Britain had not fallen.
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill inspired people to keep fighting. “ We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans... We shall never surrender.”
Late 1941: Britain now stood alone as the last remaining enemy of Hitler’s Germany in Western Europe. Adolf Hitler tours Paris after his successful invasion.
Summary: Germany Expands After World War I Treaty of Versailles seriously damaged German economy Adolf Hitler came to power –Promised to restore Germany’s greatness Hitler wanted more territory –Neighbors aware of threat –Memories of World War I still fresh –No one willing to fight over words
Identify Supporting Details With whom did Hitler seek alliances in the late 1930s? Answer(s): Japan and Italy; he also signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union
September 1, 1939 Germany attacked Poland World War II begins Support for Poland Britain and France declared war on Germany Allies gave no real help Poland fell into German hands Devastating effects Polish air force destroyed Soldiers fought; no match for German forces No natural barriers in the way German troops in position On Germany’s western border Hitler eager for assault on France Plans for invasion made Hitler conquers all of Western Europe except Great Britain The War Begins: Summary