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Democratisation PI4554 9 th February – 11 th May Dr.Christian W. Haerpfer Reader, PIR.

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Presentation on theme: "Democratisation PI4554 9 th February – 11 th May Dr.Christian W. Haerpfer Reader, PIR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Democratisation PI4554 9 th February – 11 th May Dr.Christian W. Haerpfer Reader, PIR

2 Definition of democracy Minimum definition: Democracy = holding of free and competitive multiparty elections Restricted to process of elections and not accounting for democratic character of institutions Not considering democratic performance of political institutions

3 Definition of democracy Maximum definition: 1.Complete democracy 2.Full democracy 3.Liberal democray

4 Definition of democracy Complete democracy: ySeparation of powers yRule of law yCivil society yConstitutionalism yPluralism yHuman and political rights yFreedom of media and expression of opinions

5 Complete and incomplete democracies 2004 Freedom House: 192 countries 73 authoritarian regimes (=38 %) 119 electoral democracies (=62 %) 89 complete or liberal democracies (75 %) 30 incomplete or illiberal democracies (25 %)

6 Theories of Democratization 1.Modernization Theory - Emphasis on social and economic requisites 2.Historical Sociology or Structuralism – Emphasis on changing structures of power 3.Agency or Transition Theories – Emphasis on political processes and elite initiatives 4.Congruence Theory

7 Modernization Theory (MT) Anthony Giddens (1990): MT = linking democratization with globalization within modernization Father of MD: Seymour Martin Lipset (1959) Theory of change M=functionalist and economistic Democracy=outcome of capitalism

8 Modernization Theory Lipset: zMore telephones zMore cars zMore consumption zMore capitalism =Leads to more democracy and democratization

9 Modernization Theory Current authors with MT: Leftwich 1996 + Diamond 1996+1999 zLeftwich: capitalism is producing democracy zDiamond: capitalism + political culture + civil society

10 Structuralism (ST)-Historical Sociology Father of ST: Barrington Moore 1966, Social Origins of Democracy and Dictatorship Updated version of ST: Rueschmeyer, Stephens and Stephens 1992

11 Structuralism: The Bourgeois Revolution 1.Decline of peasants and increase of urban workers 2.Decline of landed class and increase of bourgeoisie 1+2=3. Democracy e.g. UK, France, USA

12 Structuralism: Revolution from above Conservative Modernization, e.g. Germany, Japan 1.Survival of SM peasantry 2.Emergence of commercially-minded landed classes 3.Emergence of centralized and strong state

13 Structuralism: Revolution from Below Modernization by Communism and peasant revolution, e.g. Russia and China 1.Survival of peasantry 2.Weak landed class 3.Absolutist state

14 Transition Theory (TT) Transition or Agency Approach: Democracy = created by political actors, political elites beyond economic, cultural and political structures Father of TT: Dankwart Rustow 1970

15 3 Phases of Transition Theory (TT) Rustow: 1.Liberalization = preparatory phase 2.Transition = decision phase 3.Consolidation = habituation phase for leaders and citizens

16 Classic Transition Theory (TT) Schmitter & ODonnell & Whitehead 1986: Transitions from Authoritarian Rule Interactions, bargaining between A.Authoritarian leaders B.Democratic opposition

17 Classic Transition Theory (TT) Separation between: 1.Economic cirumstances 2.Political negotiations TT = mainstream of methodology and epistemology of political science

18 Classic Transition Theory (TT) Democratization = process To trace and explain these processes Rational choice version = Przeworski 1991 Agency and interactions of elites

19 Congruence Theory 1.Institutional supply = cultural demand = equilibrium 2.Institutional supply > cultural demand = no further democratization 3.Institutional supply < cultural demand = more democratization Inglehart & Welzel 2005

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