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Published byQuentin Davidson Modified over 7 years ago
An ecological system consists of a living community and all of the physical aspects of its habitat physical factors are known as abiotic factors and can include: ▪ light, temperature, precipitation, soil type, water availability, soil and water pH, etc the members of the living community are known as the biotic factors in an ecosystem include organism like animals, plants, mushrooms, and bacteria
Ecosystems rely on energy -The amount of energy available in an ecosystem determines how many organisms can live in that ecosystem
How does energy enter an ecosystem? - Sunlight is the primary source of energy for most ecosystems on earth No sun = No energy No Energy = No Life No Life = BUMMER!
Divided into Trophic (feeding) levels. Primary producers/autotrophs Primary consumers/herbivores-plant eaters Secondary consumers/carnivores –meat eaters Tertiary consumers/carnivores Detritivores/decomposers- vital part of the ecosystem. They recycle abiotic materials from dead organisms – without them, life would stop. - they play a role in nutrient cycling
Primary producers are the first producers of energy rich compounds that are later used by organisms Autotrophs: “self feeders”, organisms that can capture energy from nonliving sources and convert it into forms that living cells can use Example: plants obtain energy from sunlight and turns it into nutrients that can be eaten and used for energy by animals such as a caterpillar
Sunlight needs to be converted to be used in an ecosystem. Who converts the sunlight? - plants, algae, some bacteria - organisms that convert the energy from sunlight into a useable form are known as producers - How do they do convert the energy? Photosynthesis
Why is it important? traps the sun’s energy and stores it in a sugar called glucose. The stored energy is used by living things
6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Carbon Water Sunlight Glucose Oxygen Dioxide
Who uses the energy trapped by producers? All living things use the energy trapped by producers producers use this energy themselves Other living things, called consumers eat producers for their energy
Chemosynthesis: chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates Primary producers like bacteria harness chemical energy from inorganic molecules such as hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulfide-bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen)bacterialorganic matteroxygen
Herbivore- plant eater Carnivore- animal eater Omnivore- eats both plants and animals Decomposers- decay, chemical breakdown of organic matter Scavengers- animals that consume the carcasses of other animals that have been killed Detritivores- digest decomposers
Primary Consumers Producers Detritus Feeders Producers Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers Decomposers
Food Chain – the path of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem - all food chains begin with a producer
= a series of multiple interconnected food chains. in most ecosystems, energy doesn’t follow a simple path many consumers eat at different trophic levels food webs are representation of the complex relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
Biomagnification – the concentration of toxins as they move through a food chain. Ecological succession – changes in the composition of species found in a community over time Ecosystem – a community interacting with its environment through a one-way flow of energy and the cycling of materials Ecosystem stability – the ability of an ecosystem to return to a state of equilibrium following a disturbance
Ecological pyramids: models that show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level Symbiosis – an ecological interaction between two organisms Trophic level – position that organism(s) occupy in a food web, which is defined by its relationship to the primary energy source Pioneer species – first species to populate an area during succession
Ecological succession: a series of more or less predictable evens that occur in a community over time Primary succession: begins in areas that have no remnants of an older community Secondary succession: parts of old community survive, and can regrow rapidly
90% of the energy available is lost as energy is transferred to the next trophic level - the energy is lost as heat Only 10% is of passed on to the next level 100,000 J of sunlight 100 J Rats 10 J Snakes 1,000 J Grasshoppers 10,000 J wheat
Pyramids of energy show the relative amount of energy available at each trophic level of a food chain or food web Only 10% of energy is transferred to the next level
Is the total amount of matter in the form of living tissue within a given trophic level The amount of biomass a given trophic level can support is determined by the amount of energy available
A pyramid of biomass is a model that illustrates the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
Autotrophs (producers) ▪ Algae ▪ Phytoplankton ▪ Plants ▪ Cyanobacteria ▪ Mosses ▪ Some protozoa
Heterotrophs (consumers) ▪ Primary ▪ Secondary ▪ Tertiary ▪ Herbivores ▪ Carnivores ▪ Omnivores
Decomposers ▪ Fungi ▪ Protists ▪ Bacteria
Detritivores (detrivores) ▪ Millipedes ▪ Wood lice ▪ Types of earthworms
What happens to the biomass and numbers as we move up trophic levels? How does energy move through an ecosystem? What amount of energy is available to each trophic level?
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