Virus Virus – small particle made of 1.Nucleic acids either DNA or RNA 2.Surrounded by a protein coat
Virus Viruses are smaller than the tiniest bacterium. They are not considered to be alive: 1. Don’t grow or develop 2. Don’t carry on respiration 3. They can’t reproduce on their own (Because they’re not alive, they cannot be “killed”. )
Virus The outer protein coat is called the capsid. This capsid gives the virus its shape. The protein arrangement determines what cell can be infected. Attachment protein
Virus Every virus has a specially shaped device called an attachment protein These proteins anchor the virus to the cell Each virus can only attach to a specific kind of cell This can be an animal, plant, fungus, protist or bacteria cell Attachment Protein
Viral Replication Cycles A virus must infect a host cell to replicate. Once inside, the virus takes over the cell metabolism.
Viral Replication Cycles 2 ways for a virus to enter a cell. 1. Virus nucleic acid is injected into the cell.
Viral Replication Cycles 2. Virus is surrounded by plasma membrane and taken into the cell cytoplasm. This vacuole will burst releasing the virus.
Lytic Cycle Once inside, the virus takes over the cell processes. The cell enzymes and energy are used to make more virus. The cell will burst releasing the viruses. Lysis – bursting of a cell.
Lytic Cycle The new viruses infect more cells. This active process of making more viruses is called a lytic cycle
Lysogenic Cycle Lysogenic cycle – replication cycle where the viral nucleic acid is incorporated in the cell DNA. This new DNA is called a provirus
Lysogenic Cycle The cell carries out its own functions. Every time the cell replicates, it copies the viral DNA. This resting phase can last for many years.
Lysogenic cycle At any time, the provirus can be activated and enter a lytic cycle. When this happens, the virus will replicate and kill the cell. Examples: Herpes simplex I Hepatitis B Chicken pox
Retrovirus Retrovirus – a virus with RNA as its nucleic acid. A retrovirus produces a DNA copy of its RNA It must work backwards making DNA from RNA HIV is a retrovirus
Vaccines Viruses cannot be “killed” with antibiotics. They are controlled by vaccines. Vaccine- weakened form of a virus used to produce an immune response.
Illnesses caused by viruses Cold Flu Chicken Pox Measles Mumps Polio HIV Aids
BREAKING NEWS ! Papiloma virus causes cancer!!! HPV(human papiloma virus) has been shown to cause cervical cancer Other viruses are being studied as possible causes of cancer.(that means tumors)
Spreading Disease Disease causing agents like viruses and bacteria are easily spread from person to person. Typhoid Mary was a cook who infected 53 people with the bacterial disease typhoid fever.