Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Viruses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Viruses

2 Viruses Virus – non-cellular particle made up of genetic material and protein. Reproduce only by infecting living cells. TMV – tobacco mosaic virus – first heavily studied virus Dmitri Ivanovski – 1892, cause of TMV – juice extracted from infected plants Martinus Beijerinck – 1897, named TMV particle viruses Wendell Stanley – 1935, purified TMV into a crystal – viruses are not living things.

3 Virus Anatomy Many shapes possible
Typical virus composed of a core of either DNA or RNA (not both), surrounded by an outer protein coat, or capsid. Capsid includes proteins that enable the virus to enter a host cell.

4 Some Virus Structures Tobacco Mosaic T4 Bacteriophage Virus
Influenza Virus RNA Capsid proteins Head Tail sheath DNA Tail fiber RNA Capsid Surface proteins Membrane envelope Magnification: 82,000X Magnification: 200,000X Magnification: 1,000,000X

5 Viral Infection *Viruses attach with tail fibers and inject genetic material into host cell. Most viruses are highly specific to the cells they infect. Generally, they are species specific, but they may infect larger groups of organisms (rabies and mammals). - Bacteriophages – viruses which invade bacteria.

6 Lytic Infection Host cell lysed and destroyed – kills cells quickly!
Ex. Cold, flu viruses Virus takes over cell and uses cell to make copies of itself

7 The Lytic Cycle Lytic Cycle Bacteriophage protein coat
Bacteriophage DNA Bacterial chromosome Bacteriophage attaches to bacterium’s cell wall Bacteriophage enzyme lyses the bacterium’s cell wall, releasing new bacteriophage particles that can attack other cells. Lytic Cycle Bacteriophage injects DNA into bacterium Bacteriophage proteins and nucleic acids assemble into complete bacteriophage particles Bacteriophage Bacteriophage DNA Bacteriophage protein Bacteriophage takes over bacterium’s metabolism, causing synthesis of new bacteriophage proteins and nucleic acids

8 Lysogenic Infection Does not lyse host cell right away – lies in wait and doesn’t kill cell quickly Ex. Herpes (cold sores), HIV viruses Virus embeds its DNA into DNA of host cell and is replicated along with the host cell’s DNA. Can lie dormant for years!

9 The Lysogenic Cycle Lytic Cycle Lysogenic Cycle Bacterial chromosome
Bacteriophage DNA Bacteriophage injects DNA into bacterium Bacteriophage DNA (prophage) can exit the bacterial chromosome Lytic Cycle Lysogenic Cycle Bacteriophage enzyme lyses the bacterium’s cell wall, releasing new bacteriophage particles that can attack other cells Bacteriophage DNA forms a circle Bacteriophage DNA (prophage) may replicate with bacterium for many generations Prophage Bacteriophage proteins and nucleic acids assemble into complete bacteriophage particles Bacteriophage DNA inserts itself into bacterial chromosome

10 Lytic vs. Lysogenic

11 Retroviruses Important group of viruses
AIDS, contain RNA, once inside the cell, the RNA produces DNA which acts as a prophage and binds with the cell’s DNA. Virus may remain inactive for many years “Retro” means backward, RNA to DNA, may cause some forms of cancer and AIDS

12 Are Viruses Alive? Viruses are known as parasites
Viruses are not cells and cannot reproduce independently. But, when infect living cells, can make copies of themselves, regulate gene expression, and even evolve.

13 Diseases Caused by Viruses
Pathogens – disease producing agents Viruses – smallpox, polio, measles, AIDS, mumps, influenza, Yellow Fever, rabies, common cold. No cure, the only way to be healed is for your own immune system to produce antibodies to resist the virus. Antibiotics don’t work for viruses! Interferons – release by cells when they are attacked by a virus, might be a possible treatment. Cancer – oncogenic viruses cause cancer. Not all viruses cause cancer, not all cancers are caused by virus. Prevention is best protection – vaccinations – weak or killed virus

14 Common Diseases Caused by Viruses
Type of Virus Nucleic Acid Disease Oncogenic viruses Retroviruses Adenoviruses Herpesviruses Poxviruses DNA RNA cancer cancer, AIDS respiratory infections chickenpox smallpox

15 Diseases Caused by Bacteria
Bacteria – diphtheria, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, tetanus, Hansen Disease, syphilis, cholera, bubonic plague Bacterial illnesses are caused by toxins produced as bacteria grow Bacterial disease can be treated with antibiotics and prevented with vaccines Bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics.

16 Similarities Between Bacterial and Viral Infections
Modes of transmission similar Through the air, in water, in food, in body fluids, animal bites/scratches Both cause diseases and can be deadly Both have ways of being prevented Vaccines for both and good hygiene/sanitation prevents disease

17 Differences Between Bacterial and Viral Infections
Antibiotics only treat BACTERIAL infections! They do NOT work on viral infections. Viral infections are treated by the body’s immune system Bacteria are living cells who poison or “eat” our own cells. Viral cells inject genetic material into our own cells and use our own cells against our body

Download ppt "Viruses."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google