Presentation on theme: "Colons and semi-colons A colon (:) is used to introduce a list, a definition or a quotation. He needs: to focus during lessons; to improve high frequency."— Presentation transcript:
Colons and semi-colons A colon (:) is used to introduce a list, a definition or a quotation. He needs: to focus during lessons; to improve high frequency spellings; and to improve the use of basic punctuation.
A semi-colon has the same grammatical function as a full stop, not a comma. Incorrect: He needs to develop his vocabulary; which will enable him to express his ideas clearly. (NB: The second part of the sentence doesn’t make sense; a comma should be used here). Correct: He needs to develop his vocabulary; he also needs to express his ideas more clearly. (NB: notice how the second sentence still makes complete sense).
Semi-colons Semi-colons can also be used to separate phrases in a list. He needs to improve his use of commas, capital letters, spelling and improve handwriting. Commas are used here to separate items in a list. He needs to improve his use of commas; the accuracy of his capital letters; the spelling of high frequency words; and he needs to improve his handwriting. Semi-colons are used here to separate the longer phrases in a list.
Effect and Affect Effect is a noun (as in the special effects). You can always put the words ‘a’ or ‘the’ before a noun. His behaviour is beginning to have an adverse effect on the rest of the class. Affect is a verb. You can use the word ‘to’ before a verb. Her behaviour is beginning to affect the rest of the class. (I know that effect can also be a verb, but that’s complicated and effect is rarely used in this context!)
Practice and Practise Practice (with a ‘c’) is a noun. You can identify a noun because you can put the words ‘a’ or ‘the‘ before it: The football practice. A doctor’s practice. Practise (with an ‘s’) is a verb. You can identify a verb because you can always put the word ‘to’ before it. He needs to practise his skills. In order to improve she needs to practise... The ‘c’ of practice alphabetically goes with the ‘n’ of noun. The ‘s’ of practise alphabetically goes with the ‘v’ of verb.
Apostrophes Contraction or Omission apostrophe: The word is contracted or a letter is omitted Do not – don’t Will not – won’t I am – I’m I will – I’ll Should not – shouldn’t (NB: Maths is an accepted abbreviation of the word mathematics and so does not need a contraction apostrophe).
The possessive apostrophe: Peter’s book (the book belonging to Peter) You always use an apostrophe when you add an ‘s’ to a name. Jess’ work is good (or) Jess’s work is good (if the name ends with ‘s’ – the additional ‘s’ is optional).
Key tip for working out where the apostrophe goes: If you re-arrange the key words using the words ‘belonging to’ or ‘of the’ and it still makes sense, then the apostrophe goes at the end of the last letter of the re-arranged sentence. Steven’s car (the car belonging to Steven) – the apostrophe goes after the ‘n’. The boy’s were annoyed (the annoyed belonging to the boys) – doesn’t make sense and requires no apostrophe. The book’s cover (the cover of the book) – the apostrophe goes after the ‘k’.