2 The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence.
3 We shall take a closer look at these steps and the terminology you will need to understand before you start a science project or do a laboratory exercise.
4 Observation/Research Formulate a Hypothesis Experiment Scientific MethodProblem/QuestionObservation/ResearchFormulate a HypothesisExperimentCollect and Analyze ResultsConclusionCommunicate the Results
5 Steps of the Scientific Method Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.
6 Steps of the Scientific Method Observation/Research: Make observations and research your topic of interest.
7 Steps of the Scientific Method Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question.Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth will increase.
8 Steps of the Scientific Method Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure.Include a detailed materials list.The outcome must be measurable.
9 Steps of the Scientific Method Collect and Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed.Confirm the results by retesting.Include tables, graphs, and photographs.
10 Steps of the Scientific Method Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis.Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.
11 Steps of the Scientific Method Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience.Expect questions from the audience.
12 John watches his grandmother bake bread John watches his grandmother bake bread. He ask his grandmother what makes the bread rise.She explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar (fermentation).
13 Problem/QuestionJohn wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf?
14 Caution with Terms Be careful how you use effect and affect. Effect is usually a noun and affect, a verb.“ The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.”“How does sugar affect the rising of bread?”
15 Observation/Research John researches the areas of baking and fermentation and tries to come up with a way to test his question.He keeps all of his information on this topic in a journal.
17 HypothesisThe hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. It should always be an IF …. THEN …. Statement.
18 Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables?
19 Independent VariableThe independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally varied by the experimenter.John is going to use 25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his experiment.
20 In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread. Dependent VariableThe dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable.In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread.
21 If (independent variable) … then (dependant variable)…. What are the independent and dependant variables?If a plant doesn’t have any light then it will grow lots of fruit.If you poke a balloon with a pointy object then it will pop.
22 ExperimentJohn comes up with a procedure and list of needed materials.John discusses with his teacher how to determine the control group.
23 Control GroupIn a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison.The control group may be a “no treatment" or an “experimenter selected” group.
24 All experiments should have a control group. The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested.All experiments should have a control group.
25 Control GroupBecause his grandmother always used 50g. of sugar in her recipe, John is going to use that amount in his control group.
26 What would be some constants in this experiment? The constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.What would be some constants in this experiment?
27 ConstantsJohn remembers to keep all other factors the same so that any observed changes in the bread can be attributed to the variation in the amount of sugar.