2 - involves a series of steps The Scientific Method (S.M.) is a process that is used to find answers to questions about the world around us:- involves a series of steps
3 - Although there are different versions of the S. M - Although there are different versions of the S.M., all versions begin with identifying a problem.- It is also an organized way to answer questions about the world around us
4 Identify a Problem/Make an Observation Form a Hypothesis Scientific MethodIdentify a Problem/Make an ObservationForm a HypothesisDesign & Perform an ExperimentCollect and Analyze Results (Data)Draw a ConclusionMake a PredictionCreate a Theory
5 Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Problem/Observation: State a problem based on an observation that can be solved through experimentation
7 Steps of the Scientific Method 2. Make a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question.Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth will increase.
8 HypothesisThe hypothesis is an educated guess based on observations and what you already know.
9 Steps of the Scientific Method 3. Experiment: Design and perform an experiment.What materials will I need?What will my procedures be?- Will my results be measurable? (they have to be quantifiable…a number)
10 Steps of the Scientific Method Experiment: Always made of 2 groups1. Control Group:this group does not receive treatmentit sets the standard for the experiment and gives a comparison for the experimental results
11 Steps of the Scientific Method Experiment: Always made of 2 groups2. Experimental Group:this group receives the treatment that you are trying to test; test each treatment at least 2 to 3 times so that you can get an average…this makes it more reliable when analyzing resultsonly one condition is tested at a time and it’s called a variableVariables: the conditions that are changing in your experiment:independent variable: the condition that is being testeddependent variable: the change that occurs because of the independent variable; it’s MEASURED.
12 Steps of the Scientific Method 4. Collect and Analyze Results (Data):- Does the data make sense? Did you have 2 or 3 trials?- Find averages & modify the procedure if neededConfirm the results by retesting (at least 2-3 times):- Do you get the same results…if so, this means that you’re data is accurate and reliable- Include tables, graphs, and photographs
13 Steps of the Scientific Method 5. Draw a Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis.- This statement should be able to stand alone:Bad example: The plants died without water.Good example: In our experiment, we found that plants can survive for 10 days without water before dying.
14 Steps of the Scientific Method - By drawing a conclusion, you are sharing your results with others:- Be able to present your research and answer questions about it- Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure
15 Steps of the Scientific Method 6. Make a Prediction: What are some others things that you could test related to what you discovered?
16 Steps of the Scientific Method 7. Create a Theory: A hypothesis that is supported by a large body of evidence; it provides an important concept to the world around us
18 Let’s put our knowledge of the Scientific Method to a realistic example that includes some of the terms you’ll be needing to use and understand.
19 She explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar. Problem/ObservationJohn watches his grandmother bake bread. He ask his grandmother what makes the bread rise.She explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar.
20 Problem/ObservationJohn wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf?
21 Caution! Be careful how you use effect and affect. Effect is usually a noun and affect, a verb.“ The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.”“How does sugar affect the rising of bread?”
22 Observation/Research John researches the areas of baking and fermentation and tries to come up with a way to test his question.He keeps all of his information on this topic in a journal.
23 John talks with his teacher and she gives him an Experimental Design Diagram to help him set up his investigation.
25 Formulate a Hypothesis After talking with his teacher and conducting further research, he comes up with a hypothesis.“If more sugar is added, then the bread will rise higher.”
26 Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables?
27 Independent VariableThe independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally changed by the experimenter.John is going to use 25g, 50g, 100g, 250g, 500g of sugar in his experiment.
28 In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread. Dependent VariableThe dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable.In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread.
29 She discusses with John how to determine the control group. ExperimentHis teacher helps him come up with a procedure and list of needed materials.She discusses with John how to determine the control group.
30 The control group is a “no treatment" group In a scientific experiment, the control is the group that serves as the standard of comparison.The control group is a “no treatment" group
31 All experiments should have a control group. The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested.All experiments should have a control group.
32 Control GroupBecause his grandmother always used 50g of sugar in her recipe, John is going to use that amount in his control group.
33 ConstantsJohn’s teacher reminds him to keep all other factors the same so that any observed changes in the bread will be because of the change in the amount of sugar used.
34 ConstantsThe constants in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.
35 Can you think of some constants for this experiment?
36 Constants They might include: Other ingredients to the bread recipe, oven used, rise time, brand of ingredients, cooking time, type of pan used, air temperature and humidity where the bread was rising, oven temperature, age of the yeast…
37 ExperimentJohn writes out his procedure for his experiment along with a materials list in his journal. He has both of these checked by his teacher where she checks for any safety concerns.
38 John is going to test each sugar variable 3 times. TrialsTrials refer to replicate groups that are exposed to the same conditions in an experiment.John is going to test each sugar variable 3 times.
39 Collect and Analyze Results John comes up with a table he can use to record his data.John gets all his materials together and carries out his experiment.
40 Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm3 Size of Bread Loaf (cm3)TrialsAmt. of Sugar (g.)123AverageSize (cm3)257687447617585012961188126010010801116250672576588612500432504360Control group
41 Collect and Analyze Results John examines his data and notices that his control worked the best in this experiment, but not significantly better than 100g. of sugar.
42 ConclusionJohn rejects his hypothesis, but decides to re-test using sugar amounts between 50g. and 100g.
43 Once again, John gathers his materials and carries out his experiment. Here are the results.