Scientific Inquiry Develop a Hypothesis 3. Develop a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question. If…then… statement Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth will increase.
Scientific Inquiry Experiment 4. Experiment: Develop and follow a detailed procedure. Include a complete materials list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).
Scientific Inquiry Collect, Record & Analyze Results 5. Collect, Record & Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed. Confirm the results by retesting. Include tables, graphs, and photographs.
Scientific Inquiry Conclusion 6. Conclusion: Include a statement that supports (accepts), does not support (rejects) or is inconclusive in regards to the hypothesis. Use data to provide evidence! Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.
Scientific Inquiry Communicate the Results 7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience. Expect questions from the audience.
Let’s apply our knowledge of Scientific Inquiry to a realistic example that includes some of the terms you will need to use and understand.
Problem/Question John watches his grandmother bake bread. He asks his grandmother what makes the bread rise. She explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar.
Problem/Question John wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf? “If I increase the sugar used to make bread, will the loaf will be larger?”
Caution! Be careful how you use effect and affect. Effect is usually a noun and affect, a verb. “ The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread.” “How does sugar affect the rising of bread?”
Observation/Research John researches the areas of baking and fermentation and tries to come up with a way to test his question. He records all of his information on this topic in a journal.
John develops a testable question that he can use to set up his hypothesis. John identifies what he will test, control and measure.
Hypothesis John’s hypothesis is an educated prediction about the relationship between the changed (manipulated) and measured (responding) variables.
Hypothesis John predicts, “If I increase the amount of sugar used to bake a loaf of bread, then the loaves made using more sugar will be larger loaves than those made with less sugar.”
Do you know the difference between the changed (manipulated) and measured (responding) variables?
Manipulated Variable The changed, or manipulated variable, is a factor that’s intentionally changed (tested) by the experimenter. John is going to use 25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his experiment (amount of sugar is the MV).
Responding Variable The measured, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made to the manipulated (changed)variable. In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread (RV).
Experiment/Test/Trial John’s teacher helps him come up with a procedure and list of needed materials. She discusses with John how to determine the control group.
Control Group In a scientific experiment, the control group provides a standard of comparison for the changed (manipulated) variable.
Control Group The control group is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group, except for the variable being tested. The control group provides the “normal” for comparisons.
Control Group Because his grandmother always used 50g. of sugar in her recipe, John is going to use that amount as his control group.
Controlled Variables John’s teacher reminds him to keep all other factors the same so that any observed changes in the bread can be attributed to the variation in the amount of sugar.
Controlled Variables The controlled variables (also called constants) in an experiment are all the factors that the experimenter attempts to keep the same.
Can you think of some controlled variables for this experiment?
Controlled Variables They might include: Other ingredients to the bread recipe, oven used, rise time, brand of ingredients, cooking time, type of pan used, air temperature and humidity where the bread was rising, oven temperature, age of the yeast… (CV’s)
Experiment John writes out his procedure for his experiment along with a materials list in his journal. He has both of these checked by his teacher; she also checks for any safety concerns.
Trials It is very important to complete multiple trials for each experiment. Multiple trials provide additional data and help to validate results. John decides to test each sugar variable 3 times.
Collect and Analyze Results John creates a data table he can use to record his data. John gets all his materials together and carries out his experiment.
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm 3 Amt. of Sugar (g.) 123Average Size (cm 3 ) 25768744761758 501296118812961260 10011881080 1116 250672576588612 500432504360432 Size of Bread Loaf (cm 3 ) Trials Control group
Collect and Analyze Results John examines his data and notices that his control group produced the largest loaf in this experiment, but not significantly larger than 100g. of sugar.
Conclusion John decides his hypothesis is not supported, but decides to re-test using sugar amounts between 50g. and 100g.
Experiment Once again, John gathers his materials and carries out his experiment. Here are the results.
Can you tell which group produced the largest loaf?
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm 3 Amt. of Sugar (g.) 123Average Size (cm 3 ) 501296144012961344 601404129614401380 701638 15601612 8014041296 1332 90108012009721084 Size of Bread Loaf (cm 3 ) Trials Control group
Conclusion John finds that 70g. of sugar produces the largest loaf.
Communicate the Results John tells his grandmother about his findings and prepares to present his project in Science class.