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The Periodic Table.

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table

2 How Elements Are Organized
In 1865 John Newlands was the first to organize the elements according to properties and increasing atomic mass In studying this, he found that properties repeated every eight elements – The Law of Octaves In 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev used Newlands research and research of his own to create the first periodic table

3 How Elements Are Organized

4 How Elements Are Organized
Mendeleev did not have all the elements to work with, and some were not yet discovered He predicted, based on the research and periodic trends what properties the elements would have This idea is called the Periodic Law Repeating physical and chemical properties change periodically with their atomic number

5 How Elements Are Organized
Henry Moseley used the line-emission spectra to organize the elements He found that the elements should be organized on atomic number, not atomic mass When this was changed, discrepancies in Mendeleev’s table disappeared

6 How Elements Are Organized
To understand why elements have similar properties, you have to study the electron configurations Elements with similar properties have the same valence shell The valence shell is the outermost shell of electrons s and p orbitals


8 How Elements Are Organized
The periodic table is organized in groups and periods A group is the vertical column Elements in a group will have similar properties A period is the horizontal row Elements in a period will be filling the same valence shell

9 Tour of the Periodic Table

10 Main Block Elements The elements in the s and p block are called the main block elements (also known as the main group elements) These will be filling up the valence shell

11 Alkali Metals Group 1 Highly reactive with water
They have one electron in their valence shell They are soft, with low melting and boiling points Alkali metals color flames Li red   Na yellow   K lilac   Rb red   Cs blue

12 Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 Elements They have a full s orbital
Have 2 electrons in their valence shell Very reactive (less than Alkali Metals) Usually found in compounds Harder and denser than alkali metals, and have higher melting points Characteristic colors when heated in a flame: Mg brilliant white   Ca brick-red   Sr crimson   Ba apple green

13 Halogens Group 17 Most reactive non-metals
Full s orbital, and only missing one electron in the p orbital (7 electrons in the valence shell) Most often bonded to Alkali Metals At room temperature all the halogens exist as diatomic molecules

14 Noble Gases Group 18 Full Valence Shell Non-Reactive
Full s and p orbitals Non-Reactive Once called inert gases, but found some compounds will form, although very few

15 Hydrogen 1st element on the periodic table
Does not really fall into any category Sometimes acts as a metal, sometimes acts as a non-metal Highly explosive

16 Metals Most of the elements are metals

17 Metals Physical Properties of Metals: Chemical Properties of Metals:
Luster (shininess) Good conductors of heat and electricity High density (heavy for their size) High melting point Ductile (most metals can be drawn out into thin wires) Malleable (most metals can be hammered into thin sheets) Chemical Properties of Metals: Easily lose electrons Corrode easily. Corrosion is a gradual wearing away. (Example: silver tarnishing and iron rusting)

18 Metals Transition Metals Summary of Common Properties
Low ionization energies Positive oxidation states Very hard High melting points High boiling points High electrical conductivity Malleable Five d orbitals become more filled, from left to right on periodic table

19 Metals These common properties apply to both the lanthanides and actinides. The rare earths are silver, silvery-white, or gray metals. The metals have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air. The metals have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties. This makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals (e.g., monazite is a mixed rare earth phosphate). Rare earths are found with non-metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. There is little tendency to vary the valence. (Europium also has a valence of 2+ and cerium also a valence of 4+.)

20 Metalloids Elements on both sides of the zigzag line have properties of both metals and nonmetals. These elements are called metalloids. Physical Properties of Metalloids: Solids Can be shiny or dull Ductile Malleable Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals

21 Nonmetals Nonmetals are found to the right of the stair-step line. Their characteristics are opposite those of metals. Physical Properties of Nonmetals: No luster (dull appearance) Poor conductor of heat and electricity Brittle (breaks easily) Not ductile Not malleable Low density Low melting point Chemical Properties of Nonmetals: Tend to gain electrons Since metals tend to lose electrons and nonmetals tend to gain electrons, metals and nonmetals like to form compounds with each other. These compounds are called ionic compounds. When two or more nonmetals bond with each other, they form a covalent compound.

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