2 Periodic Periodic Law Periodic Table Something periodic occurs at regular or at least generally predictable intervalsPeriodic law - physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbersPeriodic Table of Elements – a table of the elements, arranged by atomic number, that shows the patterns in their properties; based on the periodic lawCan you think of anything that is periodic?
3 ElementA pure substance made up of one kind of atom that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means90 occur naturally on earth25 were synthesized (made) by scientistsElement Song
4 Dmitri MendeleevIn the 1860’s he devised a periodic table where the elements were ordered by their atomic massesHe did this by grouping elements together according to their similaritiesDraft of Mendeleev's Periodic TableImage taken from:
5 Mendeleev’s Published Periodic Table of Elements Why do you think there are question marks here?Image taken from:
6 Mendeleev’s Predictions Although Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of Elements had missing elements or “gaps,” he was able to predict the characteristics of these missing elements because of Periodic Law.“Ekasilicon”GermaniumNotice how Mendeleev’spredictions (orange column) were veryaccurate when compared to Germanium’s actual characteristics (green column)Date Predicted1871Date Discovered1886Atomic Mass7272.6Density5.5 g/cm35.47 g/cm3Bonding Power4ColorDark GrayGrayish White
7 Henry Moseley Sample X-ray Spectra In 1914, his work led to a revision of the periodic table by rearranging the elements by their atomic numbersHe concluded that the number of protons in an atom is its atomic numberSample X-ray SpectraImage taken from:
8 Using the Periodic Table The boxes that make up the periodic table contain a significant amount of information. To understand this information, it is necessary to refer to the periodic table’s key(s)8OOxygen15.999Atomic Number(Number of protons)Element Symbol(Written with a capital letter or a capital followed by a lower case if two letters )Element NameAtomic Mass(Rounded to a whole number, equalsthe number of protons and neutrons)ClassColorMetalNon-MetalMetalloidStateRoom Temp.)Symbol ColorSolidLiquidGasWhat is Oxygen’s physical state of matter?Which class does Oxygen fall into?
9 3 Classes of ElementsUsing this as a guide, color code your periodic table to show the three classes. Start by highlighting the “zig-zag.”ClassColorMetalNon-MetalMetalloid
10 What metal is not a solid MetalsLocationFound on the left of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic table (exception Hydrogen)Chemical PropertiesHave few electrons in their outer energy level, thus lose electrons easilyPhysical Propertiesductile, good conductors, malleable, shiny, most are room temperature79Au11Na22.990Image taken from:What metal is not a solid@ room temperature?
11 Atoms with Few Electrons in their Outer Energy Level 11Na22.990Notice: only 1 electron in outer level+-+-4Be9.012Notice: only 2 electrons in outer level
12 Non-MetalsLocationMost found to the right of the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic tableChemical PropertiesMost have almost full outer energy levels, thus they tend to gain electrons; some have completely full outer levelPhysical Propertiesnot ductile or malleable, not shiny, poor conductors, most are solid, but some are gas at room temperature17Cl35.453Image taken from:16S32.066Image taken from:
13 Atoms with Full or Almost Full Outer Energy Level +-8O15.999+-Notice: 2 electrons in outer level – FULL2He4.003+-Notice: 6 electrons in outer level – almost fullNotice: 7 electrons in outer level – almost full9F18.998
14 MetalloidsLocationBorder the zigzag line/staircase on the periodic tableChemical PropertiesMost atoms have ½ (≈) complete set of electrons in outer levelPhysical Propertieshave properties of both metals and non-metals14Si28.086Image taken from:5B10.811Image taken from:
15 Atoms with ½ (≈) Complete Outer Energy Level +-Notice: only 4 electrons in outer level5B10.811+-Notice: only 3 electrons in outer level14Si28.086
17 Period and GroupsWhen a column goes from top to bottom, it's called a group. The elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer orbital (Valence).When you look at a periodic table, each of the rows is considered to be a different period
18 Families on the Periodic Table Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into families bases on their chemical properties.Each family has a specific name to differentiate it from the other families in the periodic table.Elements in each familyreact differently withother elements.
19 ALKALI METALS Group 1 Hydrogen is not a member, it is a non-metal 1 electron in the outer shellSoft and silvery metalsVery reactive, esp. with waterConduct electricityColor Light BlueImage:
20 ALKALINE EARTH METALS Group 2 2 electrons in the outer shell White and malleableReactive, but less than Alkali metalsConduct electricityColor Dark Green
21 TRANSITION METALS Groups 3- 12 Good conductors of heat and electricity.Some are used for jewelry.The transition metals are able to put up to 32 electrons in their second to last shell.Can bond with many elements in a variety of shapes.Color Dark Blue
22 BORON FAMILY Group 13 3 electrons in the outer shell Most are metals Boron is a metalloidColor Red
23 CARBON FAMILY Group 14 4 electrons in the outer shell Contains metals, metalloids, and a non-metal Carbon (C)Color Yellow
24 NITROGEN FAMILY Group 15 5 electrons in the outer shell Can share electrons to form compoundsContains metals, metalloids, and non-metalsColor Bright Green
25 OXYGEN FAMILY Group 16 6 electrons in the outer shell Contains metals, metalloids, and non-metalsReactiveColor ORANGE
26 Halogens Group 17 7 electrons in the outer shell All are non-metals Very reactive are often bonded with elements from Group 1Color Yellow
27 Noble Gases Group 18 Exist as gases Non-metals 8 electrons in the outer shell = FullHelium (He) has only 2 electrons in the outer shell = FullNot reactive with other elementsColor Grey
28 Rare Earth Metals Some are Radioactive The rare earths are silver, silvery-white, or gray metals.Conduct electricityColor Violet