Presentation on theme: "MWH Corning March 2010. Japan’s military leaders wanted an empire like the European nations had 1931 – Japanese troops moved from Manchuria into NE."— Presentation transcript:
Japan’s military leaders wanted an empire like the European nations had 1931 – Japanese troops moved from Manchuria into NE China 1937 – Second Sino –Japanese War Used a lot of resources, Japan looked at the rich European colonies in SE Asia
The U.S. felt that their colonies in the Philippines and Guam were threatened Sent aid to China to resist Japanese 1941 – Japan invades French Indochina Pres. Roosevelt cuts off oil shipments Admiral Yamamoto calls for an attack on Pearl Harbor (Hawaii) Dec 1941 – Japanese attacked Congress declares war on Japan and its allies Internment of Japanese Americans - (1942) 110,000 placed in War Relocation Camps, 65% U.S. Citizens http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUrpIFp7EMA&feature=relate d http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUrpIFp7EMA&feature=relate d
Japan also launched bombing raids on Hong Kong (British colony) and Guam/Wake Islands Invasion force landed in Thailand Jan – April 1942 Japan takes the Philippines Feb 1942 – Japanese strike against British colonies: Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Burma; Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) Treatment of Japanese Prisoners of War By 1942 control 1 million square miles – WHY? http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/pacificwar/ pacwar.gif http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/pacificwar/ pacwar.gif
Battle of Coral Sea (1942)– use of aircraft Battle of Midway (1942) – turn the tide General MacArthur’s “Island Hopping” plan – target strategically important islands, moving closer to Japan Battle of Guadalcanal (1942) – 6 months, Japanese lost 24,000 of 36,000 force http://www.combinedfleet.com/battles/ http://www.combinedfleet.com/battles/
By 1944 Japanese Navy was destroyed – only Army and Air Force (kamikaze pilots) in play Feb 1945 – Fire bombing of Tokyo begins (carpet bombing -> non-strategic) March 1945 – American Marines take the island of Iwo Jima (Iwoto) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Wm7ADffYzo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Wm7ADffYzo April 1945 – Okinawa – Japanese lost 100,000 troops, US 10,000 Next step – invasion of Japan but that would come at a cost
Three different options the Allied powers had: Option 1: Military – The U.S. could wait for USSR to enter China – Japan couldn’t win against both forces. Option 2: Diplomatic – Negotiate a peace, allow Japanese to keep the Emperor, modify “unconditional” surrender idea Option 3: Atomic Bomb – bomb could be dropped in countryside to demonstrate power, a warning could be given in advance Question: Would the use of the A-bomb on a civilian population justified?
Allied forces had attacked and occupied Okinawa just south of Japanese main islands, April - June 1945. US casualties are approximately 38,000 (dead and wounded). Japanese military and civilian casualties 100-200,000 people. American Scientists conduct successful test of the first atomic explosion in New Mexico. Potsdam Declaration Issued - July 26, 1945. Japan must surrender "unconditionally" or face total destruction. No specific warning about a atomic attack issued to Japanese government.
Hiroshima contained a Naval base. Hiroshima (population 350,000) attacked August 6, 1945. Target (ground zero) was the geographic center of the city. Approximately 92% of Hiroshima buildings destroyed by explosion and subsequent fires. Approximately 100,000 people died relatively immediately. Tens of thousands later died from radiation and cancer. Total estimates range up to 180,000 people. Nagasaki attacked August 9, 1945. Approximately 50,000 - 100,000 people were killed immediately and due to radiation / cancer.
To avoid a ground invasion of Japan and thus save lives of US servicemen who would have to attack. Original estimate of 250,000-300,000 causalities (dead and wounded). To end war quickly - saving lives and destruction of property throughout Asia. It was felt by decision makers that only the shock of the bombs effects without warning would have the psychological effect needed for Japan to end the war. To end war before USSR was due to declare war on Japan - Stalin had promised Truman / Roosevelt that this would happen 3 months after German surrender (August 8, 1945).
Pres Truman needed to decide to commit about.5 million troops or use a new weapon – the Atomic bomb Ultimatum – unconditional surrender of Japan Emperor no longer divine Aug 6, 1945 – Ebola Gay – dropped Atomic bomb on Hiroshima – 80,000 people killed but “injuries” continue until today Aug 9, 1945 – second bomb on Nagasaki Japanese surrender Sept 2, 1945 Video:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NF4LQaWJRD g&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=D7F1A06CE1780AD5http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NF4LQaWJRD g&feature=SeriesPlayList&p=D7F1A06CE1780AD5