Snow on deck. USS Philippine Sea North Pacific 1945
People to Know Douglas MacArthur J. Robert Oppenheimer Chester Nimitz Harry S. Truman
After Pearl Harbor Japanese continued to attack throughout the Pacific –Hong Kong –French Indochina –Thailand –Much of China –Malaya –Guam –Wake Islands –Solomon Islands –Dutch East Indies –Aleutian Islands (Alaska)
Allies vs. Japan Douglas MacArthur commanded allied troops in the Phillipines. Japan attacked in 1941 Roosevelt ordered MacArthur and troops to leave. MacArthur vowed, “I shall return”, and return he did…
Deck crew climbing up to get the pilot out. He did. That's a fuel tank his foot is on. Empty?
Doolittle’s Raid April 1942 Allies began to push back against the Japanese 16 bombers launched a surprise attack on Tokyo Helped lift the spirits of the Americans, while damaging that of the Japanese
Battle of Midway Americans had broken Japanese code and knew that Midway was to be the next to be attacked by Japan. Nimitz moved the Pacific fleet to protect the island. Launched surprise air raids and bombing runs on Japanese carriers, causing heavy damage Japan lost 4 carriers, a cruiser and 250 planes. The Battle of Midway was a turning point in the war in the favor of the allies
Island Hopping After the Battle of Midway, the allies began “island hopping”. They went island to island taking territory from the Japanese, and inching closer to Japan itself. Eventually, MacArthur was able to keep his promise and return to the Philippines.
Iwo Jima Strategic location for the allies to gain control. Needed it as a base to launch air bombing attacks on Japan However, it was heavily defended by over 20,000 Japanese troops dug into the sides of the mountain 6000 U.S. Marines died taking the island.
Okinawa The last obstacle to overcome before reaching Japan Even more heavily defended than Iwo Jima Japanese continued using kamikaze attacks About 8000 U.S. soldiers lost their lives More than 100,000 Japanese died Churchill forecasted the loss of 1 million U.S. soldiers and 500,000 British… –Atomic Bomb???
Japanese Internment Camps There was much prejudice against Japanese-Americans in the U.S. Eventually Japanese-Americans were forced into internment camps against their will Many lost their homes, businesses and personal belongings JACL – Japanese American Citizens League was formed after the war to fight for compensation for those who lost their property. 1965, congress authorized spending $38 billion to reimburse for losses. This was only a very small percentage of actual losses.
Decision to Drop the Bomb J. Robert Oppenheimer led the research on the Manhattan project Tested the bomb in July of 1945 in New Mexico Truman didn’t learn about the atomic program until he became president Now he had a decision to make… What would you do given the same information that Truman was given?
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Truman decided to use the atomic bomb. Tried to get the Japanese to surrender with the threat of using this weapon on them. Japan would not surrender. On August 6, 1945 the Enola Gay dropped the Little Boy over Hiroshima Three days later the Fat Man was dropped on Nagasaki Over 200,000 Japanese died
Japan surrenders September 2, 1945 aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, Japan surrenders Emperor Hirohito didn’t want his people to suffer anymore.
MacArthur’s occupation U.S. forces occupied Japan for 7 years after the war. Helped rebuild their economy and established a democratic government. Their constitution is still called the “MacArthur constitution”
Yalta Conference Before Roosevelt died, he met with Churchill and Stalin in the Soviet Union to discuss what would happen when Germany was defeated. Germany was divided into four zones (U.S., British, French, Soviet) United Nations created to replace the failed League of Nations