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Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.

2 Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov Studied Digestion of Dogs. Dogs would salivate before they were given food (triggered by sounds, lights etc…) Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate. Click above to see about Pavlov

3 Terms to Know Stimulus – Causes a reaction
Response – The reaction caused by a stimulus Conditioned – Taught / learned Unconditioned – Untaught / naturally occurring

4 Classical Conditioning
UCS UCR This is passive learning (automatic…learner does NOT have to think). First thing you need is a unconditional relationship. Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)- something that elicits a natural, reflexive response. Unconditional Response (UCR)- response to the UCS.

5 Classical Conditioning
Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response). You present the stimulus with the UCS a whole bunch of times. UCS UCR S

6 Classical Conditioning
CR CS Learning takes places when the previously neutral stimulus elicits a response. Now the neutral stimulus is called the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditional response becomes the conditioned response (CR).

7 Pavlov – One More Time

8 Classical Conditioning
TRICKY FACT: We know learning exists because the CS is linked to the UCS. ACQUISITION-initial learning of the stimulus –response relationship. Acquisition does not last forever. The moment the CS is no longer associated with the UCS, we have EXTINCTION.

9 Spontaneous Recovery Sometimes, after extinction, the CR still randomly appears after the CS is presented.

10 Generalization and Discrimination
Something is so similar to the CS that you get a CR. Something so different to the CS so you do not get a CR.

11 Classical Conditioning and Humans
John Watson brought Classical Conditioning to psychology with his Baby Albert experiment. Click to see Baby Albert to some nice jazz. This type of Classical Conditioning is also known as Aversive Conditioning.

12 Learned Taste Aversions
When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong. Even when food and sickness are hours apart. Food must be salient (noticeable.)

13 The Learner is NOT passive. Learning based on consequence!!!
Operant Conditioning The Learner is NOT passive. Learning based on consequence!!!

14 The Law of Effect Edward Thorndike Locked cats in a cage
Behavior changes because of its consequences. Rewards strengthen behavior. If consequences are unpleasant, the Stimulus-Reward connection will weaken. Called the whole process instrumental learning. Click picture to see a better explanation of the Law of Effect.

15 B.F. Skinner The father of Operant Conditioning.
Nurture guy through and through. Used a Skinner Box (Operant Conditioning Chamber) to prove his concepts.

16 Skinner Box

17 Reinforces A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior.
Positive Reinforcement: The addition of something pleasant. Negative Reinforcement: The removal of something unpleasant. It is not punishment

18 Positive or Negative? Studying for a test. Putting your seatbelt on.
Having a headache and taking an aspirin. Getting a kiss for doing the dishes. Faking sick to avoid AP Psych class. Breaking out of jail.

19 Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment
Addition of something unpleasant. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) Removal of something pleasant. Punishment tells you what not to do Reinforcement tells you what to do

20 How do we actually use Operant Conditioning?
To train a dog to get your slippers, you would have to reinforce him in small steps. First, to find the slippers. Then to put them in his mouth. Then to bring them to you and so on…this is shaping behavior. Do we wait for the subject to deliver the desired behavior? Sometimes, we use a process called shaping. Shaping is reinforcing small steps on the way to the desired behavior. To get Barry to become a better student, you need to do more than give him a massage when he gets good grades. You have to give him massages when he studies for ten minutes, or for when he completes his homework. Small steps to get to the desired behavior.

21 Chaining Behaviors Subjects are taught a number of responses successively in order to get a reward. Click picture to see a rat chaining behaviors. Click to see a cool example of chaining behaviors.

22 Same Terminology as Classical Conditioning
Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Generalization Discrimination If I wanted to reinforce my son’s dancing by giving him lollipops when he dances. Identify the following….

23 Primary v. Secondary Reinforcers
Primary Reinforcer Secondary Reinforcer Things that are in themselves rewarding. Things we have learned to value. Money is a special secondary reinforcer called a generalized reinforcer (because it can be traded for just about anything)

24 Token Economy Every time a desired behavior is performed, a token is given. They can trade tokens in for a variety of prizes (reinforcers) Used in homes, prisons, mental institutions and schools.

25 Premack Principle You have to take into consideration the reinforcers used. Is the reinforcer wanted….or at least is it more preferable than the targeted behavior. Pat’s Hubbas might be a great positive reinforcer for me, but it would not work well on a vegetarian.

26 Reinforcement Schedules
How often to you give the reinforcer? Every time or just sometimes you see the behavior.

27 Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers
Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press. Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week.

28 Continuous v. Partial Reinforcement
Reinforce the behavior EVERYTIME the behavior is exhibited. Usually done when the subject is first learning to make the association. Acquisition comes really fast. But so does extinction. Reinforce the behavior only SOME of the times it is exhibited. Acquisition comes more slowly. But is more resistant to extinction.

29 Ratio Schedules Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio
Provides a reinforcement after a SET number of responses. Provides a reinforcement after a RANDOM number of responses. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. Fixed Ration- She gets a manicure for every 5 pounds she loses.

30 Interval Schedules Fixed Interval Variable Interval
Requires a SET amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Requires a RANDOM amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. Fixed Interval: She gets a manicure for every 7 days she stays on her diet.

31 Observational Learning
Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll We learn through modeling behavior from others. Observational learning + Operant Conditioning = Social Learning Theory Click pic to see some observational learning.

32 Latent Leaning Edward Toleman Three rat experiment.
Latent means hidden. Sometimes learning is not immediately evident. Rats needed a reason to display what they have learned.

33 Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.

34 Insight Learning Wolfgang Kohler and his Chimpanzees.
Some animals learn through the “ah ha” experience. Click pic to see insight learning.

35 1. Once Pavlov’s dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork, the tuning fork was a(n)
a) unconditioned stimulus b) neutral stimulus c) conditioned stimulus d) unconditioned response

36 2. Shaping is a pattern of responses that must be made before classical conditioning is completed rewarding behaviors that get closer and closer to the desired goal behavior completing a set of behaviors in a succession before a reward is given d) giving you chocolate pudding to increase the likelihood you will eat more carrots

37 3. John loves to fish. He puts his line in the water and leaves it there until he feels a tug. On what reinforcement schedule is he rewarded? a) fixed ratio b) fixed interval c) variable ratio d) variable interval

38 4. Chimpanzees given tokens for performing tricks were able to put the tokens in vending machines to get grapes. The tokens acted as a) primary reinforcers b) classical conditioning c) secondary reinforcers d) unconditioned reinforcers

39 5. Try as you might, you are unable to teach your dog to do a somersault. He will roll around on the ground, but he refuses to execute the gymnastic move you desire because of a) preparedness b) instinctive drift c) chaining d) shaping

40 6. Watson and Rayner’s classical conditioning of “Little Albert” was helpful in explaining that
a) some conditioned stimuli do not generalize b) human emotions such as fear are subject to classical conditioning c) drug dependency is subject to classical as well as operant conditioning d) small children are not as easily conditioned as older children

41 7. Jamel got very sick after eating some mushrooms on a pizza at his friend’s house. He didn’t know that he had a stomach virus at the time, blamed his illness on the mushrooms, and refused to eat them again. Which of the following is the unconditioned stimulus for his taste aversion to mushrooms? a) pizza b) stomach virus c) mushrooms d) headache

42 9. While readying to take a free-throw shot, you suddenly arrive at the answer to a chemistry problem you’d been working on several hours before. This is an example of: a) insight b) backward conditioning c) latent learning d) discrimination

43 10. Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?
a) Buying a child a video game after she throws a tantrum. b) Going inside to escape a thunderstorm. c) Assigning a student detention for fighting. d) Getting a cavity filled at the dentist to halt a toothache.

44 11. The first step in a behavior modification program is to
a) gather baseline data b) specify the antecedent c) specify the target behavior d) design a program

45 12. In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the a) unconditioned stimulus b) unconditioned response c) conditioned stimulus d) conditioned response

46 15. The initial stage of learning a response is called
a) extinction b) contiguity c) acquisition d) conditioning

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