 # Foundations of Physical Science

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Foundations of Physical Science
Unit 1, Chapter 3

Unit One: Forces and Motion
Chapter 3 Forces and Motion 3.1 Force, Mass and Acceleration 3.2 Weight, Gravity and Friction 3.3 Equilibrium, Action and Reaction

Chapter 3 Learning Goals
Explain the meaning of force. Show how force is required to change the motion of an object. Use a graph to identify the relationships between variables. Explain and discuss Newton's second law and the relationship between force, mass and acceleration. Describe how changing the mass of the ca affects its acceleration. Draw conclusions from experimental data. Demonstrate qualitatively how friction can affect motion. Explain Newton's third law of motion. Identify action-reaction pairs of forces. Recognize how Newton's third law of motion explains the physics behind many common activities and useful objects.

Chapter 3 Vocabulary Terms
air friction equilibrium force friction gravity inertia law of conservation of momentum mass momentum newton Newton's 1st law of motion Newton's 2nd law of motion Newton's 3rd law of motion pounds rolling friction sliding friction viscous friction weight

3.1 Sir Isaac Newton’s laws of motion
Sir Isaac Newton ( ), an English physicist and mathematician, is one of the most brilliant scientists in history. Before the age of 30, he formulated the basic laws of mechanics, discovered the universal law of gravitation, and invented calculus!

3.1 Force, Mass and Acceleration
IN OTHER WORDS: Unless you apply force, things tend to keep on doing what they were doing in the first place. Force causes an object to accelerate, while the object’s mass resists acceleration. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

3.1 Force, Mass and Acceleration
A force is what we call a push or a pull, or any action that has the ability to change motion. There are two units of force that are commonly used: pounds and newtons. Scientists prefer to use newtons.

3.1 The difference between force and mass
Force is a push or pulling action that can change motion. Force and mass have different units. The metric unit of force, the newton, relates force and motion.

3.1 Mass Because mass is an amount of matter, mass is independent of the force of gravity. The mass of an object is the same everywhere in the universe. The only exception to this rule is when things go extremely fast, close to the speed of light.

3.1 The difference between force and mass
Mass is the amount of “stuff” or matter in an object. We can also define mass as the amount of matter an object has. Mass is measured in kilograms.

3.1 The difference between weight and mass
Weight is a force that comes from gravity pulling on mass. The weight depends on how strong gravity is. Earth is bigger than Mars and has stronger gravity. A kilogram weighs 9.8 newtons on Earth but only 3.8 newtons on Mars.

3.1 Newton's Second Law a = F m force (newtons, N)
acceleration (m/sec2) mass (kg)

3.1 Force, Mass, and Acceleration
Key Question: What is the relationship between force, mass and acceleration? *Read text section 3.1 BEFORE Investigation 3.1

3.2 Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force.
Gravity depends on mass. Gravity accelerates objects. Why is the total force exerted by the bag of flour less on the moon?

3.2 Weight gravity (9.8 m/sec2) Fw = mg Weight force (N) mass (kg)

3.2 Weight and Galileo A legend has it that, around 1587, Galileo dropped two balls from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to see which would fall faster.

3.2 Gravity The attractive force from gravity between objects of ordinary mass is incredibly small.

3.2 Gravity You feel weight because the mass of Earth is large enough to create significant gravity forces.

3.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
The force of attraction between two objects is directly related to the masses of the objects and inversely related to the square of the distance between them.

3.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
gravity (9.8 m/sec2) mass 1 (kg) mass 2 (kg) Force (N) F = G m1m2 R2 distance (m) between m1 and m2

3.2 Friction Friction is a force that always opposes motion.
What is left is often called the net force. What is the net force acting on the car?

3.2 Weight, Gravity and Friction
Key Question: How does increasing the mass of the car affect its acceleration? *Read text section 3.2 BEFORE Investigation 3.2

3.3 Equilibrium, Action and Reaction
Key Question: What is Newton's third law of motion? *Read text section 3.3 AFTER Investigation 3.3

3.3 Equilibrium, Action and Reaction
Momentum explains why the speed and the direction of motion are related to the mass of the object.

3.3 Momentum velocity (m/sec) Momentum (kg-m/sec) P = mv mass (kg)