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**Equal forces in balance**

Chapter 10 - Forces Question – What causes an object to start moving, stop moving, or change direction Answer - Forces Force – a push or a pull 30 lbs lbs Equal forces in balance Balanced Forces

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**Equilibrium – when all forces acting on an object are in balance**

If all forces are in balance there is no acceleration. (The object is not moving or is at constant velocity 100 lbs Ground 100 lbs

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**If the forces are not in balance there will be an acceleration**

Balanced Forces The force exerted by the motor in a forward direction is equal the force of friction in the opposite direction. Frictional force – a slowing force caused by objects or substances rubbing against each other. If the forces are not in balance there will be an acceleration 50 mph From wind resistance, gears, etc..

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**NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION**

An object at rest will stay at rest and an object that is moving will stay in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force An object will tend to do what it is already doing. Inertia – the tendency of an object to resist changes in motion

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**NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION**

Fnet = m(a) a = Fnet/m m/sec2 (meter) kg Newton Newton – the force required to accelerate a 1 kg mass 1 m/sec2 Acceleration and force are directly proportional . If we double the force, we double the acceleration. Acceleration and mass are inversely proportional. If we double the mass, the acceleration is cut in half.

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**3 types of friction Sliding (when objects slide over each other)**

Rolling friction (less than sliding) Fluid – when objects move through a fluid such as water or air

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**Gravity – attraction between all objects that have mass**

The greater the mass the greater the gravitational attraction Free fall – acceleration due to gravity is m/sec2 Air resistance – fluid friction of air The higher the velocity, the greater the air resistance. Terminal velocity – when air resistance equals gravitational force

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**Skydiver terminal velocity**

120 mph if body is horizontal Over 200 mph if body is vertical

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**Projectile Motion 9.8 m/sec2 9.8 m/sec2**

or 9.8 m/sec2 They will strike the ground at the same time. Gravity accelerates them both at the same rate

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**Mass – measure of the amount of matter an object contains**

Weight – measure of gravitational pull measured in lbs on a spring scale Is dependent on location Mass – measure of the amount of matter an object contains Measured on a balance scale (with counter weights) Independent of location

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**NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION**

If one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal force (but in the opposite direction) on the first object. These forces can be thought of as action and reaction forces.

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Examples: Rocket Action force – rocket pushing out gases Reaction force – gases pushing back against rocket Gun Action force – powder and gun push against bullet Reaction force – bullet pushes back against powder and gun Canoe Action force – paddle pushes against water Reaction force – water pushes back against paddle and canoe

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**Momentum Momentum = mass (velocity)**

The greater the momentum, the harder an object is to stop. Momentum can be increased by increasing velocity or mass. Which football player will be hardest to stop? Light and slow Heavy and slow Light and fast Heavy and fast

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Law of conservation of momentum – the total momentum of any group of objects remains the same unless outside forces act on the objects. (friction is a force). This is used to analyze collisions. Examples: Before After 1 kg 0 m/sec 2 kg m/sec 1 kg 5m/sec 2 kg 0 m/sec Momentum = 1 kg (5m/sec) Momentum = 5 kg(m) /sec Momentum = 2 kg (2.5 m/sec) Momentum = 5 kg(m) /sec

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**In opposite directions**

Before Shot bullet and gun momentum = 0 After Shot Gun Bullet In opposite directions Momentum = 1 kg (10 m/sec) Momentum = 10 kg(m)/sec Momentum = .01 kg (1000 m/sec) Momentum = 10 kg(m)/sec

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**Collision of bullet and clay**

Bullet Clay M = .01 kg (1000 m/sec) M = .99 kg (0m/sec) M = 10 kg(m)/sec M = 0 After Collision Bullet in Clay Momentum = (.01 kg kg) (10 m/sec) Momentum = 10 kg(m)/sec

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**Satellites What keeps a satellite in orbit?**

Imagine you are standing on the top of a mountain and can throw a rock as fast as you want. Can you put the rock in orbit by throwing the rock straight out? How? Draw a diagram and explain the forces involved. If the velocity is perfect the drop of the rock due to gravity matches the curvature of the earth.

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