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Definitions of Giftedness

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1 Definitions of Giftedness
EDPS 540 Rebecca L. Mann

2 never did define giftedness
There is no magic, universally accepted definition for giftedness. Definitions range in restrictiveness from Terman's top 1% of the population to "every child is gifted". Here are some of the more prominent definitions: Lewis Terman (1926) never did define giftedness decided to use the top 1% level in general intellectual ability as measured by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

3 Harry Passow (1955) Capacity for superior achievement in any socially valuable area of human endeavor Limited to academic fields as languages, social sciences, natural sciences, and mathematics; such art fields as music, graphic and plastic arts, performing arts and mechanic arts; and the field of human relations. Paul Witty (1958) Outstanding potentialities in art, in writing, or in social leadership can be recognized largely by performance Definition of giftedness be expanded Can consider any child gifted whose performance, in a potentially valuable line of human activity, is consistently remarkable

4 U.S. Office of Education Definition (Marland, 1972)
Gifted and talented children are those identified by professionally qualified persons who by virtue of outstanding abilities are capable of high performance. These are children who require differentiated educational programs and/or services beyond those normally provided by the regular school program in order to realize their contribution to self and society. Children capable of high performance include those with demonstrated achievement and/or potential in any of the following areas: 1. General intellectual ability 2. Specific academic aptitude 3. Creative or productive thinking 4. Leadership ability 5. Visual and performing arts 6. Psychomotor ability

5 U.S. Office of Education Definition (1988)
The term "gifted and talented students" means children and youth who give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop such capabilities. (Psychomotor ability has now been excluded.)

6 Howard Gardner (1983): Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Originally he proposed seven separate and somewhat independent intellectual domains, each chosen because it represents a culturally valuable and relatively autonomous set of problem-solving skills. Linguistic Musical Logical-mathematical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Gardner never intended his Theory of Multiple Intelligences to be used as an educational model.

7 Abraham Tannenbaum (1983) Developed talent exists only in adults
Definition = potential for becoming critically acclaimed performers or producers of ideas in spheres of activities that enhance the moral, physical, emotional, social, intellectual or aesthetic life of humanity. Factors that serve to link promise with adult fulfillment: Superior general intelligence Exceptional special aptitudes Non-intellective facilitators Environmental influences Chance or luck Developed Talent: Scarcity talents: people who make startling breakthroughs in their field Surplus talents: people who significantly add to the beauty of our environment Quota talents: specialized skills related to business, goods and services Anomalous talents: skills within the practical domain.

8 Joseph Renzulli (1986) The Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness
Renzulli divides giftedness into two broad categories: Schoolhouse Giftedness- great success in test-taking and lesson-learning Creative-Productive Giftedness - areas of human activity where a high value is placed on the development of original material and of products designed to suit defined audiences Creative-productive persons possess a well-defined set of three interlocking clusters of traits. These clusters consist of above average, though not necessarily superior, ability, task commitment, and creativity. Giftedness consists of an interaction among these three. Renzulli believes that gifted behaviors take place in certain people, at certain times, and under certain circumstances.

9 under certain circumstances
in certain people, at certain times, under certain circumstances Creative-productive persons possess a well-defined set of three interlocking clusters of traits. These clusters consist of above average, though not necessarily superior ability, task commitment, and creativity. Giftedness consists of an interaction among these three. .

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11 Robert Sternberg (1988) Triarchic Theory
Intellectual giftedness is exhibited in three different ways. Analytic or Componential Giftedness Academic talent Synthetic or Experiential Giftedness Creativity, intuition, ability to cope with novelty Practical or Contextual Giftedness Applying analytic and/or synthetic abilities to everyday, pragmatic situations Giftedness is a well-managed balance of the three abilities. The gifted individual is a good mental self-manager.

12 The Columbus Group (1991) Giftedness is asynchronous development in which advanced cognitive abilities and heightened intensity combine to create inner experiences and awareness that are qualitatively different from the norm. This asynchrony increases with higher intellectual capacity. The uniqueness of the gifted renders them particularly vulnerable and requires modifications in parenting, teaching and counseling in order for them to develop optimally.

13 Robert Sternberg (1993) Implicit Theory of Giftedness
Criteria for Giftedness: There are five criteria which gifted individuals have in common. Excellence - The person is superior in some dimension(s) relative to peers. Rarity - The person possesses a high level skill in an area that is rare relative to peers. Productivity - The areas in which the person excels must lead to some productivity or potential productivity. Demonstrable - The excellence the person possesses must be demonstrable through one or more valid tests and assessments. Value - The excellence the person possesses must be valued by his or her society.

14 Francoys Gagné (1993) Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent.
Gagné links giftedness with natural or untrained human abilities he calls aptitudes. Talent corresponds to superior performance in one or more areas of human activity. Motivation Initiative Needs Interests Perseverance Temperament/ Personality Adaptability Attitudes Self-Esteem Values Giftedness Aptitude or Potential Intellectual Reasoning Creative Originality Socioaffective Leadership Sensorimotor Flexibility Others Talents Actual Performance Academics Language, Math Games of Strategy Chess, puzzles Technology Mechanics Arts Visual, Drama Social Action Tutoring Business Entrepreneurship Athletics and Sports Training and Development Environmental Catalysts Surroundings Persons Events

15 High Ability Education in Indiana Senate Bill 408
Mandate: All Indiana school corporations will identify students of high ability in the general intellectual and specific academic domains and provide them with appropriately differentiated curriculum and instruction in areas of core content in grades K-12.  High Ability Education in Indiana Senate Bill 408

16 IC 20-10.1-5.1-2: "high ability student” :
(1) performs at, or shows the potential for performing at, an outstanding level of accomplishment in at least one domain when compared to other students of the same age, experience, or environment; and (2) is characterized by exceptional gifts, talents, motivation, or interests.

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