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What is Intelligence? Definition: 3 main characteristics 1) 2) 3)

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Presentation on theme: "What is Intelligence? Definition: 3 main characteristics 1) 2) 3)"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Intelligence? Definition: 3 main characteristics 1) 2) 3)

2 Brief History of Intelligence Testing

3 Alfred Binet

4 Lewis Terman (Mental Age) (Chronological Age)
X = IQ (Intelligence Quotient)

5 The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores
IQs less than 70 = Intellectually Disabled. More than 130 = gifted Fig. 8.1

6 Problems with the IQ Formula

7 David Wechsler

8 Intelligence Tests Today
Updated versions of Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests are most commonly used intelligence tests today IQ score no longer determined by dividing mental age by chronological age Now compare total score to others at age level Average score = 100 Other scores based on amount of deviation from average “normal curve” Score reflects relative standing within population of your age

9 Psychological Test Concepts

10 Types of Psychological Tests
Intelligence Tests Aptitude Tests A test designed to measure a person’s capacity to learn certain things or perform certain tasks SAT, ACT, and GRE (verbal and quantitative components), Wonderlic Look to measure “potential” Achievement Tests A measure of what a person has accomplished or learned in a particular area MCA tests, AP Psychology Exam Personality Tests

11 Aptitude v. Achievement Tests

12 How do we construct Intelligence tests?
Tests must be:

13 Standardization The test must be pre-tested to a representative sample of people and Form a normal distribution or bell curve

14 Determining Test Quality
Standardizing Conditions surrounding a test are as similar as possible for everyone who takes it Helps eliminate possible bias of those giving or scoring the test – objective Norms Description of frequency at which particular scores occur, allowing scores to be compared statistically Standardization group Representative sample of people pretested to determine meaningful scores Percentile score Percent of individuals in normative group whom the individual has scored above

15 Reliability Spilt halves or test–retest method.

16 Reliability The degree to which a test can be repeated with the same results “Test-Retest Reliability” A group of people take the same test twice “Alternate Form Reliability” Different, but similar test on 2nd trial – reduce practice effects “Split-half” method Correlation is calculated b/w person’s scores on two comparable halves of test (“Internal Consistency Reliability”) Inter-Rater reliability Determine degree to which different raters/observers give consistent estimates of same phenomenon

17 Does Intelligence Change Over Time?

18 Validity Content Validity: does the test sample a behavior of interest
Predictive Validity: does the test predict future behavior. Criterion related validity

19 Validity The degree to which test scores are interpreted correctly and used appropriately Content validity Content of a test is a fair, representative sample of what the test is supposed to measure Criterion-related validity (predictive validity) Correlation between test scores and an independent measure of what it is supposed to assess Construct validity Extent to which scores suggest test is measuring theoretical construct it claims to measure

20 Flynn Effect

21 The Flynn Effect Performance on IQ scores has steadily increased over generations Environmental factors?

22 Test Bias? Tests do discriminate.
But some argue that their sole purpose is to discriminate. We have to look at the type of discrimination.

23 Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores
The Bell curve is different for Whites v. Black. Math scores are different across genders and the highest scores are for Asian males. Why? Nature or Nurture

24 Theories of Intelligence

25 Is intelligence one general trait or many specific abilities?

26 Is intelligence one general trait or many specific abilities?
L.L. Thurstone

27 Information Processing Approach
Theory that attempts to understand intelligence by examining the mental operations (i.e. attention, memory) involved in intelligent behavior

28 Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Robert Sternberg (Tufts University) 3 types of intelligence: Analytic: Creative: Practical:

29 Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory
Howard Gardner (Harvard)

30 Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory
Linguistic Logical-mathematical Spatial Musical Body-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Naturalistic Commonly measured in intelligence tests Suggests they interact, but can function with some independence Some can become more developed than others Critics suggest that many of these are better labeled as “skills” than “intelligences” Also, don’t really have dependable measures

31 Emotional Intelligence
Daniel Goleman, Peter Salovey, John D. Mayer, & others

32 Is intelligence one thing or several different abilities?
To find out scientists use FACTOR ANALYSIS: He saw using FA that doing well in one area of a test predicted that you will do well in another.

33 Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner disagreed with Spearman’s g and instead came up with the concept of multiple intelligences. He came up with the idea by studying savants (a condition where a person has limited mental ability but is exceptional in one area).

34 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences?
Visual/Spatial Verbal/Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical/Rhythmic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Natural Learn More about Gardner



37 Sternberg’s Three Aspects of Intelligence
Gardner Simplified Analytical (academic problem solving). Creative (generating novel ideas) Practical (common sense).

38 Gardner’s Three New Intelligences
Naturalistic intelligence Spiritual intelligence Existential intelligence

39 Types & Characteristics of Tests
Aptitude: person’s capability Achievement: person’s knowledge of subject Characteristics Validity: the ability of the test to measure what you say it will measure Reliability: the ability of the test to measure a construct with consistency Standardization: the use of reference scores for interpreting an individual’s performance

40 Types of Validity & Reliability of Tests
Content: Complete range of material Criterion: Compare to other tests of the same measure (high on SAT, high on ACT) Predictive: future performance (MCAT) Construct: theoretical or hypothetical construct (depression, intelligence) Reliability Test-retest: Alternate form: Inter-rater:

41 Brain Size and Intelligence Is there a link?
Small +.15 correlation between head size and intelligence scores (relative to body size). Using an MRI we found +.44 correlation with brain size and IQ score.

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