8 Intelligence Tests Today Updated versions of Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests are most commonly used intelligence tests todayIQ score no longer determined by dividing mental age by chronological ageNow compare total score to others at age levelAverage score = 100Other scores based on amount of deviation from average“normal curve”Score reflects relative standing within population of your age
10 Types of Psychological Tests Intelligence TestsAptitude TestsA test designed to measure a person’s capacity to learn certain things or perform certain tasksSAT, ACT, and GRE (verbal and quantitative components), WonderlicLook to measure “potential”Achievement TestsA measure of what a person has accomplished or learned in a particular areaMCA tests, AP Psychology ExamPersonality Tests
12 How do we construct Intelligence tests? Tests must be:
13 StandardizationThe test must be pre-tested to a representative sample of people andForm a normal distribution or bell curve
14 Determining Test Quality StandardizingConditions surrounding a test are as similar as possible for everyone who takes itHelps eliminate possible bias of those giving or scoring the test – objectiveNormsDescription of frequency at which particular scores occur, allowing scores to be compared statisticallyStandardization groupRepresentative sample of people pretested to determine meaningful scoresPercentile scorePercent of individuals in normative group whom the individual has scored above
16 ReliabilityThe degree to which a test can be repeated with the same results“Test-Retest Reliability”A group of people take the same test twice“Alternate Form Reliability”Different, but similar test on 2nd trial – reduce practice effects“Split-half” methodCorrelation is calculated b/w person’s scores on two comparable halves of test (“Internal Consistency Reliability”)Inter-Rater reliabilityDetermine degree to which different raters/observers give consistent estimates of same phenomenon
18 Validity Content Validity: does the test sample a behavior of interest Predictive Validity: does the test predict future behavior.Criterion related validity
19 ValidityThe degree to which test scores are interpreted correctly and used appropriatelyContent validityContent of a test is a fair, representative sample of what the test is supposed to measureCriterion-related validity (predictive validity)Correlation between test scores and an independent measure of what it is supposed to assessConstruct validityExtent to which scores suggest test is measuring theoretical construct it claims to measure
21 The Flynn EffectPerformance on IQ scores has steadily increased over generationsEnvironmental factors?
22 Test Bias? Tests do discriminate. But some argue that their sole purpose is to discriminate.We have to look at the type of discrimination.
23 Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores The Bell curve is different for Whites v. Black.Math scores are different across genders and the highest scores are for Asian males.Why?Nature or Nurture
25 Is intelligence one general trait or many specific abilities?
26 Is intelligence one general trait or many specific abilities? L.L. Thurstone
27 Information Processing Approach Theory that attempts to understand intelligence by examining the mental operations (i.e. attention, memory) involved in intelligent behavior
28 Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Robert Sternberg (Tufts University)3 types of intelligence:Analytic:Creative:Practical:
29 Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory Howard Gardner (Harvard)
30 Multiple Intelligences (MI) Theory LinguisticLogical-mathematicalSpatialMusicalBody-kinestheticIntrapersonalInterpersonalNaturalisticCommonly measured in intelligence testsSuggests they interact, but can function with some independenceSome can become more developed than othersCritics suggest that many of these are better labeled as “skills” than “intelligences”Also, don’t really have dependable measures
31 Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman, Peter Salovey, John D. Mayer, & others
32 Is intelligence one thing or several different abilities? To find out scientists use FACTOR ANALYSIS:He saw using FA that doing well in one area of a test predicted that you will do well in another.
33 Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardner disagreed with Spearman’s g and instead came up with the concept of multiple intelligences.He came up with the idea by studying savants (a condition where a person has limited mental ability but is exceptional in one area).
34 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences? Visual/SpatialVerbal/LinguisticLogical/MathematicalBodily/KinestheticMusical/RhythmicInterpersonalIntrapersonalNaturalLearn More about Gardner
37 Sternberg’s Three Aspects of Intelligence Gardner SimplifiedAnalytical (academic problem solving).Creative (generating novel ideas)Practical (common sense).
38 Gardner’s Three New Intelligences Naturalistic intelligenceSpiritual intelligenceExistential intelligence
39 Types & Characteristics of Tests Aptitude: person’s capabilityAchievement: person’s knowledge of subjectCharacteristicsValidity: the ability of the test to measure what you say it will measureReliability: the ability of the test to measure a construct with consistencyStandardization: the use of reference scores for interpreting an individual’s performance
40 Types of Validity & Reliability of Tests Content: Complete range of materialCriterion: Compare to other tests of the same measure (high on SAT, high on ACT)Predictive: future performance (MCAT)Construct: theoretical or hypothetical construct (depression, intelligence)ReliabilityTest-retest:Alternate form:Inter-rater:
41 Brain Size and Intelligence Is there a link? Small +.15 correlation between head size and intelligence scores (relative to body size).Using an MRI we found +.44 correlation with brain size and IQ score.