Presentation on theme: "INTELLIGENCE Chapter 9. What is Intelligence? Intelligence—the abilities to acquire new abilities and new behavior and adapt to new situations. 4 Different."— Presentation transcript:
What is Intelligence? Intelligence—the abilities to acquire new abilities and new behavior and adapt to new situations. 4 Different Theories: Spearman’s Two-factor Thurstone’s Theory of Primary Mental Abilities Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Spearman’s Two-factor Theory G-factor—represents a person’s general intelligence (the ability to reason and solve problems) S-factor—represents a person’s specific mental abilities (for example, some may be better at music or be more creative)
Thurstone’s Theory of Intelligence Believed that intelligence was made up of 8 separate factors: Visual and spatial ability Perceptual speed Numerical ability Verbal meaning Word fluency Memory Inductive and deductive reasoning Belief that one can be high in one factor and low in another, but they are still dependent on each other.
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Believed in 7 kinds of intelligences: Linguistic Logical-mathematical Visual-spatial Body-kinesthetics musical-rhythmic Interpersonal feelings Intrapersonal feelings Each one is based in a different part of the brain Main difference between Gardner and Thurstone— Gardner believed intelligences were independent of one another!!
Gardner (continued) A person can excel at one intelligence but not another. Each intelligence is an intellectual potential that can be tapped into. Critics believe that special talents (such as music) are not considered to be intelligences.
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Believed different types of intelligences work together Intelligence includes three abilities: Analytic (solve problems) Creative (deal with new situations) Practical (accomplish everyday tasks)
Emotional Intelligence There are five factors that can make one successful: Self-awareness Mood management Self-motivation Impulse control People skills
Links Between Different Types Do parts of the brain overlap? Some psychologists have done studies to show that music overlaps with other cognitive abilities.
Types of Tests Achievement—what you have learned Aptitude—predicts your ability to learn new skills Intelligence tests (most-widely used) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Wechsler Scales
Stanford-Binet Scales First test was used in 1905 Intelligence increases with age so tests were made for different age levels Look at page 211 for diagram Tests gave a mental age score. It shows the intellectual level at which a child is functioning. Intelligence quotient—number that reflects the relationship between a child’s mental age and his or her chronological age. IQ= Mental Age/Chorological Age X 100 Thus, 100 is considered to be average.
The Wechsler Scales More widely used than Stanford-Binet! Consists of subsets of intellectual skills. Differ from Stanford-Binet in 2 ways: --do not use the concept of mental age --measures verbal and non-verbal (SB measures just verbal) Test is used to determine learning disabilities Look at figure 9.3 on page 213
Reliability & Validity Reliability—refers to its consistency Validity—measures what it is supposed to measure If a test is reliable, one should get about the same IQ score every time. Both Stanford-Binet and Wechsler have proved to be highly reliable. If a test is valid, it should predict how one does in school or at a vocation.
Problems with Intelligence Tests Education and Economic Background can affect results --Scores are approximately 10-15% lower in lower-income children Motivation Culturally Biased Tests --concepts only used by certain cultures --interpreted by different cultures different ways
Statistics Approximately 50% of the population’s IQ falls between 90-110 (average being 100) Approximately 95% of the population have an IQ between 70 and 130 The other 5% are defined by psychologists as mentally handicapped or gifted.
Mental Retardation Having an IQ score below 70 defines an individual as being mentally retarded. Mild Retardation --80% of people who are mentally-handicapped have an IQ between 50 and 70. --Able to read, do arithmetic, and hold a job Moderate --people with an IQ between 35 and 49 --can speak, feed, and dress themselves --cannot read or solve problems --Down’s syndrome
Mental Retardation (continued) Severe Retardation --IQ between 20 and 35 --some understanding of speech --may be able to feed themselves Profound Retardation --IQ below 20 --barely communicate --depend on others completely
Causes of Mental Retardation --Accidents resulting in brain damage --Difficulties during Childbirth --Pregnant women abusing drugs or alcohol --Pregnant women who are malnourished --Genetic disorders such as Down’s Syndrome
Giftedness Gifted --People with an IQ higher than 130 --motivation and creativity could possibly contribute --Children who are gifted should be identified early as to receive additional enrichment to foster their intellectual growth
Where does Intelligence come from? Most psychologists agree intelligence is both heredity and from environmental factors Genetic Influences --Kinship Studies (heritability is between 40-60%) --Adoptee Studies Environmental Influences --Parenting Styles --Preschool Programs (Head Start)