Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Church Reform and the Crusades

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Church Reform and the Crusades"— Presentation transcript:

1 Church Reform and the Crusades
Chapter 14.1

2 Trouble Ahead: The Emperor vs. the Pope
Began with crowning of Charlemagne Otto I united Germany and part of Italy into Holy Roman Empire (900’s-1100’s) Church was not happy with: German power over Italy Use of lay investiture: ceremony in which kings and noble appointed church officials Use of simony: the selling of positions in the church 1075: Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture

3 Henry IV vs. Pope Gregory VII
After Gregory banned lay investiture, Henry ordered him to step down Gregory then excommunicated Henry Henry went to Canossa in January 1077 and stood barefoot in the snow for three days to beg Gregory’s forgiveness The showdown didn’t solve anything 1122: Concordat of Worms: compromise saying Church could appoint Bishops but emperor could veto

4 Reform Church was reorganized to resemble a kingdom with pope at the top Church enforced laws against simony and marriage of priests Pope Gregory VII

5 New Religious Orders Dominicans Franciscans Benedictines
Importance of helping poor and sick These orders included women and men Saint Francis of Assisi

6 Cathedrals Gothic- new style of architecture during Middle Ages
Stained glass windows often told stories for illiterate peasants Chartres (Cathedral of Notre-Dame)

7 Warm Up What were the three main problems that the Church wanted to reform?

8 Answers Lay investiture- process of nobles and kings appointing church officials Simony- selling church positions Marriage of priests- this was against the beliefs of the Church

9 Crusades Pope Urban II issued a call for the Crusades (holy war) to gain control of the Holy Land Goals of Crusades Reclaim Holy Land and reunite Christendom Keep arguing knights busy Younger sons who did not inherit property could gain position in society, adventure, or riches Merchants loaned money to finance the Crusades

10 First Crusade Large outpouring of support from all Christians
Knights were ill-prepared and argued over a leader Captured Jerusalem and won narrow strip of land

11 Second Crusade To win back Edessa from the Turks
European army was defeated Jerusalem was taken by Saladin, a Kurdish leader

12 Third Crusade Philip II of France argued with Richard and went home
Frederick I drowned on the journey Richard the Lionhearted battled with Saladin and eventually agreed to a truce

13 Crusading Spirit Dwindles
In 1204 the Fourth Crusade to recapture Jerusalem fails because knights are too busy looting Constantinople Children’s Crusade: In two separate movements, 50,000 children died from cold, starvation, or drowning or were sold into slavery

14 Spanish Crusade Reconquista: effort of Spanish to drive Muslim Moors out of Spain Succeeded under Isabella and Ferdinand in late 1400’s.

15 Isabella and Ferdinand used the Inquisition (Court held by Church to suppress heretics) to unify country and increase power Many Muslims and Jews converted but were still tried for heresy and burned at the stake

16 Effects of Crusades Increased trading between Europe and Southwest Asia Role of women expanded to run estates or businesses after men left for war Power of Pope lessened Power of feudal lords lessened and power of kings increased Persecution of Muslims and Jews caused legacy of hatred and bitterness Energy of Crusades also led to expansion of trade, towns, and universities across medieval Europe

Download ppt "Church Reform and the Crusades"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google