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Types of Appeal and Rhetorical Strategies in Julius Caesar

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1 Types of Appeal and Rhetorical Strategies in Julius Caesar
Persuasion can be sneaky, but the art of persuasion is something worth studying

2 What are types of appeal?
There are three types of appeals people use to communicate: Ethical: the speaker/writer uses language to gain the listener’s/reader’s trust Logical: the speaker/writer uses facts, details, and information to create a rational argument. Emotional: the speaker/writer uses emotionally charged words and phrases to “move” the listener/reader. Scan over Brutus’s speech on pg Which appeal do you think he is using? Why?

3 What are rhetorical strategies?
Rhetorical strategies are what good speakers use to persuade effectively. There are many, many rhetorical strategies, but we’ll be focusing on the ones Shakespeare used in Julius Caesar. Rather than go back through the play, we’ll be using the funeral speeches of Act III, Scene 2 to highlight each rhetorical device.

4 Rhetorical Strategies
(1) Alliteration: repetition of the same consonant sound throughout a line of verse. Ex: “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers” (2) Antithesis: juxtaposition or contrast of ideas or words to give the listener a feeling of balance. Ex: “One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” Neil Armstrong (3) Apostrophe: a sudden turn from the general audience to address a particular person or group. “We women live in a time of open hearts and minds. But without you, Amelia Earhart, there would be no such things.”

5 Rhetorical Strategies
(4) Chiasmus: two corresponding pairs arranged in a parallel inverse order. (a-b-b-a) Ex: “Fair is foul and foul is fair” (Macbeth) (5) Epimone: frequent repetition of a phrase or questions: dwelling on a point Ex: “You talkin’ to me? Are you talkin’ to me? Because there don’t seem to be nobody else around. I’ll ask again; are you talkin’ to me?” (Scarface) (6) Irony: saying the opposite of what you mean Ex:

6 Rhetorical Strategies
(7) Metaphor: implied comparison between two unlike things achieved through the figurative use of words Ex: A strong wind of poverty blew out her life. (8) Metonymy: substitution of some attributive or suggestive word for what is meant (i.e. “Crown” equals “Royalty”) Ex: “The pen is mightier than the sword” (9) Parallelism: similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words Ex: Ferocious dragons breathing fire and wicked sorcerers casting spells do damage by the light of night.

7 Rhetorical Strategies
(10) Polysyndeton: the repetition of conjunctions in a series of coordinate words, phrases, or clauses Ex: We checked under the blanket and the pillow and the rug and the couch and the table and the bed and the dresser and the coat rack, but we couldn’t find Fluffy anywhere. (11) Rhetorical Question: a question asked for effect, but not necessarily needing to be answered “To be, or not to be” (Hamlet) (12) Simile: comparing two unlike things using the words “like” or “as” Ex: He was solid as a rock.

8 On Your Own Now, try looking for examples of these strategies on your own. Look at pg Try to find as many of these strategies as possible. When you find a strategy, write down the line next to the title on your worksheet. Keep this worksheet for future use.

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