2 What is a relative pronoun? A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause.It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies.A relative clause can also be called an adjective clause that (like an adjective) describes the subject.
3 What do you remember about clauses? They contain a subject and a verbThere are two types, dependent and independentDependent clauses can’t stand on their ownSooooooo that means that when you use a relative pronoun in a sentence, you have a complex sentence.
4 Relative Pronouns: Who Whom Whose Which That Whoever What Whomever WhateverWhichever
5 Example: The person who phoned me last night is my teacher. In the above example, "who“:1. relates to "person", which it modifies, or describes2. introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night"
6 Here are some more examples: The person that phoned me last night is my teacher.The car which hit me was yellow.The person whom I phoned last night is my teacher.The car which I drive is old.The car that I drive is old.Students whose parents are wealthy pay extra.
7 Watch out though!Some of the words on the relative pronoun list can also act as other types of pronouns.Make sure to look and see how a pronoun is functioning in a sentence before you assume it’s a certain type.Example:Who is going to the store?This who is an interrogative pronoun.The girl who is my friend lives next door.This who is a relative pronoun.
8 When do you use commas?Punctuating adjective clauses can be tricky. For each sentence, you will have to decide if the adjective clause is essential or nonessential and then use commas accordingly.
9 Essential Clauses Essential clauses do not require commas. An adjective clause is essential when you need the information it provides.Look at this example:The vegetables that people leave uneaten are often the most nutritious.Vegetables is nonspecific. To know which ones we are talking about, we must have the information in the adjective clause. Thus, the adjective clause is essential and requires no commas.
10 Nonessential ClausesSo if we eliminate vegetables and choose a more specific noun instead, the adjective clause becomes nonessential and does require commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence.Read this revision:Broccoli, which people often leave uneaten, is very nutritious.
11 Combine the following simple sentences, using relative pronouns, to create a complex sentence: I met a man. He had just lost his job.You need something. I will give you that.We got into a train. It was crowded.This is my friend. I was speaking of him.The officer has informed the police. His car was stolen.
12 On your own:Choose five more simple sentence pairs and change them to complex sentences.You may choose any five you like and may work with your table.Remember to use the relative pronouns to begin the adjective clause.When you’re finish, you may do your outside reading.