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Introduction to Fluency & Why Collect Data for WRC

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1 Introduction to Fluency & Why Collect Data for WRC
Luisa Sanchez-Nilsen Shannon Skye

2 DISCLAIMER The opinions and positions expressed herein are not intended to ensure compliance with any particular law or regulation pertaining to the provision of educational services for eligible students. This presentation and/or materials should be viewed and applied by users according to their specific needs. This presentation and/or materials represent the views of the presenter(s) regarding what constitutes preferred practice based on research available at the time of this publication. The presentation and/or materials should be used as guidance. Any references specific to any particular education product are illustrative, and do not imply endorsement of these products by OSPI, or to the exclusion of other products that are not referenced in the presentation materials. OSPI, Special Education, is not responsible for the content of those educational product(s) referenced in this presentation. Douglas H. Gill, Ed.D., Director, Special Education

3 Student Tracking log

4 Purpose To demonstrate that struggling students are increasing their reading skills and becoming confident readers with the help of WRC program and that of their educators. Track an individualized tutoring plan for each student referred to the WRC program. Determine areas of improvement (reading attitude, behavior, self confidence and academic achievements.

5 Data for the WRC Program
Maintain funding for the program and to demonstrate that struggling students are increasing their reading skills and becoming confident readers with the help of WRC program and that of their educators. Create adjustments Determine areas of improvement Demonstrate growth over time

6 Who should complete the Tracking Log?
Site Supervisor WRC/AmeriCorps Members Other trained staff

7 When should we complete the WRC Tracking Log?
Enter Data: When students receive tutoring services When pre- and post-test scores become available

8 What data is collected? School: name, district information, and project name Student: name, grade, state student identification #, and teacher Tutoring Plan: dates, time amounts, group size, pre- and post-test scores, assessments used, and exit reason Student Achievement: reading attitude, reading behavior, self confidence, and benchmark achievement

9 Student Achievement ~helpful hits~
Enter Yes, no, or unsure indicating whether the student improved his or her reading attitude, behavior, and self confidence. Under student outcome, enter yes or no if the student gained at least one grade level, or met benchmark. Use the notes column to provide additional information if the student did not improve reading abilities.

10 Student Data Tracking Log
Project/School/District Information Student Information Tutoring Plan Student Achievement Project Site School District School First Name Last Name 10 digit State Student ID # Grade Teacher # Days/Week # of Minutes per Day # Group Size Assessment Used Pretest (SEPTEMBER) Posttest (MAY) Start Date Exit Date Exit Reason Improved Reading Attitude (Y, N, Unsure) Improved Reading Behavior (Y, N, proved Unsure) Improved Self Confidence (Y, N, Unsure) Gained at Least One Grade Level OR Met Bench-mark Yes or No Other Notes/ Comments

11 Who to contact? Screen shot
OSPI-Luisa Sanchez-Nilsen Elementary Reading Specialist (360) Supports implementation of the k-12 Reading Model Shannon Skye-WRC Program Coordinator Washington Service Corps- (360) Provides technical assistance in completing the Student Tracking Log and with general program and AmeriCorps questions OSPI-Christine Shaw Administrative Assistant Student Information (360) Provides assistance to DAC’s with accessing and uploading to the SFTP Site

12 Now what? Go to the link below and find your District Assessment Coordinator (DAC): DAC’s will need to verify the state student identification number before uploading to the STFP Site. (The state student identification number is separate from the school student identification number). DAC’s can do this by using the district’s CEDAR data, if not contact Christine Shaw at

13 Important dates: October 31, 2011: Pre-test data due
June 22, 2012: Post-test data due

14 Introduction to Fluency

15 Fluency Defined Why do we assess fluency When to assess Reading levels
Students End of year Fluency Proficiency Goals Instruction Free Resources

16 Five Key Instructional Components
Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Strategies National Reading Panel (2000)

17 Fluency Ability to decode words automatically
An essential component of reading instruction Bridge from phonics to comprehension (Pikulski & Chard, 2005) Relation to Comprehension Automaticity in word recognition (LaBerge & Samuals, 1974) Prosody or expressiveness in oral reading(Schrieber & Read, 1980) Automaticity is part of fluency as it connects to phonics and word recognition Ability to decode words automatically Leads to automatic word recognition When defining fluency, The National Panel (2000) takes into consideration the components of rapid and automatic word recognition and of prosody. According to the Panel, fluency is “the ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression” (p. 3-1). Expanding this definition, Put Reading First (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn,2001) explains that: Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly. When fluent readers read silently, they recognize words automatically. They group words quickly in ways that help them gain meaning from what they read. Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking. (p. 22)

18 Automaticity+ Prosody
The Bridge Phonics Automaticity+ Prosody Comprehension 1. Decode words 2. Word Recognition Readers Monitor the meaning of text Reading for meaning Reading with Fluency

19 What is Reading Fluency?
The ability to read both orally and silently Accurately Automaticity (quickly) Prosody (with expression) Fluency is identified as one of the five critical components of reading (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension) Oral reading rate is strongly correlated with students’ ability to comprehend both simple and complex text

20 Student behaviors without Fluency
Struggle with words (word recognition) Read at a slower and laborious rate One to one word matching Ignore phrasing (read like a robot) Less cognitive energy is spent on comprehension

21 Connection to Comprehension
Is limited due to the focus on forming the word, not what the words are trying to say Fast reading is not comprehending As text complexity increases fluency rate decreases Vocabulary is limited Fluency rate with prosody show a direct correlation to comprehension

22 Why to assess FINDING students who may need intervention assistance in reading DIAGNOSING fluency problems MONITORING PROGRESS to determine if reading skills are improving

23 When to assess Benchmark 2-to-3 times per year K-12
Progress monitoring Tier 2 K-12 – every two-to-three weeks Tier 3 K-12 – every week All students should be individually assessed on their reading fluency at least twice during the school year. Beginning of the year and the end of the year Typically, students read a grade level passage They are timed for one minute and their words correctly read per minute (WCPM) are recorded. Decide upon a measurement level For struggling readers, reading a grade level passage only informs the teacher that the student isn’t able to read it fluently, or isn’t able to read it. Therefore, teachers must identify a student’s instructional grade level reading (decodes with 90% accuracy).

24 What is typically assessed
Rate, accuracy and prosody Rate - how many words read per minute (typically) Accuracy - how many words read correctly Prosody – words read with expression, appropriate phrasing, and attention to punctuation.

the number of words in text read correctly per minute (wcpm) or… letters, sounds, words

26 OSPI Reading Fluency Sample of Proficiency Goals
Grade 1: words correct per minute Grade 2: wcpm Grade 3: wcpm Grade 4: wcpm Grade 5: wcpm Grade 6 & up: wcpm Unpracticed, cold reading by end of the year

27 This chart provides some basic reading fluency norms.
Possible Activity: Take three minutes to confer with your table and identify where your students are based on Words Correct Per Minute. Facilitate group share as you go through and identify students in correlation to the chart.  Students below the 50 percentile should receive the core curriculum, intensive intervention, and progress monitoring every 1-2 weeks in relevant skill areas. They should be in groups of four or fewer students.  Students at the 50 percentile should receive the core curriculum, targeted instruction in problem skills, and monthly progress monitoring. They should be in groups of five or fewer students.  Benchmark students should receive the core curriculum and continue to be assessed during benchmark windows. Students in the Benchmark category that are borderline Strategic should receive some progress monitoring to ensure they are developing at an appropriate rate.

28 Instruction Identify materials appropriate for the lower reader’s reading level (no more than 10 errors per 100 words – the student’s instructional level). Use leveled passages and/or high interest/low vocabulary materials. Have both partners read the same passage. Have enough materials selected for two new passages per week. There are several instructional methods you can use to develop fluency. I will highlight MAPPS highlighted in the resource book, “What Research Has To Say About Reading Instruction” (4th edition, 2011)

29 Instruction MAPPS Modeling Fluent Reading for Students
Assisted Reading for Support Practice Reading, Wide and Deep Phrasing of Words in Meaningful Groups Synergy to Make the Whole Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts Rasinski & Samuels, 2011 Model for them what it means by fluent while reading. Teachers need to read aloud to students meaningfully and expressively. Students who are read to regularly are motivated to read, have larger vocabularies, and are more proficient in reading comprehension. When reading for prosody voice inflection add meaning/inference/perceptions to what is being read. This brings the text to life. As text complexity increases particularly in the upper grades it is important to slow down to grasp and capture the what the text is trying to say. In order to get full comprehension as teachers we must slow down and take the time. Read and reread to the students this provides rich training and modeling. To ensure comprehension ask questions that will pull the students focus back to the paragraph of the text that was read. An example, is “Based on the paragraph we just read and only this paragraph. What do you infer or believe the author is trying to say?” Model how to read the text again to answer the question, pulling evidence from text. Assisted reading for support, this can be done in pairs, a tutor with the student, buddy reading with an older or more fluent reader sitting side by side. A tutor may observe and record for future lessons on any word work and provide a mini-lesson. Word work is quick and relevant for the reader, applying the new word to their current and future reading. Practice reading, wide and deep. As modeled in a read aloud by a teacher or tutor, the end goal is to have students independently reread for meaning. Working at deepening their understanding of the text. Repeated reading is student self-selected, “just right books” that students can read independently with fluency. This is also known as familiar reading. A strategy to support students outside of school is prepare “Book Bags” with just right books that could go home each night, record on a reading log for independent practice. After the teacher/tutor is finished introducing a new book, building background knowledge and have read several times ( normally takes about 4 readings) the book can become part of his book bag to go home. This becomes part of a structured routine. The end result is creating a fluency routine.

30 Fluency is important It helps students read for meaning
Motivates students to read Students will be eager to self-select books that are just right Just right books can be read and reread

31 Focus on Fluency Osborn & Lehr FREE!

32 Assessing Fluency Tim Rasinski FREE!

33 Questions? General program and AmeriCorps questions please contact: Shannon Skye, Washington Service Corps, WRC Program Coordinator (e) (p) Grant implementation questions, please contact: Luisa Sanchez-Nilsen, Reading Specialist, OSPI (e) (p)

34 Resources Chard, D., Vaughn, S., & Tyler, B.J. (2002). A synthesis of research on effective interventions for building reading fluency with elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(5), DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills). Edformation Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C., Walz, L., & Germann, G. (1993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth? School Psychology Review, 22(1), Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3),

35 Resources Hasbrouck, J.E., Ihnot, C., & Rogers, G. H. (1999). Read Naturally: A strategy to increase oral reading fluency. Reading Research & Instruction, 39(1), Hasbrouck, J.E., Woldbeck, T., Ihnot, C., & Parker, R. I. (1999). One teacher’s use of curriculum-based measurement: A changed opinion. Learning Disabilities: Research & Practice, 14(2), Hasbrouck, J. E. & Tindal, G. (Spring, 1992). Curriculum-based oral reading fluency norms for students in grades Teaching Exceptional Children, 24(3), Kamil, M., Person, P.D., Moje, E., Afflerbach, P., (2011). Handbook of Reading Research. Volume IV New York, New York. ISBN-13: McCardle, P., Chhabra,V., & Kapinus, B. (2008) Reading Research in Action. A Teacher’s Guide for Student Success Baltimore, Maryland. ISBN-10:

36 Resources National Institute for Literacy, (June 2003). Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read,2nd edition, 22-31 NATIONAL READING PANEL REPORT. (2000). Teaching children to read. An evidence-based assessment of scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute for Child Health and Human Development. Osborn, J. & Lehr, F. A Focus on Fluency (free booklet) Rasinski, T. Assessing Reading Fluency (free booklet) Rasinski, T. & Samuels, J.(2011) “Reading Fluency: What It Is and What It Is Not.” What Research Has to Say about Reading Instruction, 4th edition,

37 Resources READ NATURALLY “Reading Fluency Monitor”.
Shinn, M. R. (Ed.) (1989). Curriculum-Based Measurement: Assessing Special Children. NY: Guilford. ISBN: X SOPRIS WEST “6 Minute Solution”

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