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Response to Intervention (RtI) in Primary Grades

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Presentation on theme: "Response to Intervention (RtI) in Primary Grades"— Presentation transcript:

1 Response to Intervention (RtI) in Primary Grades
Jana Jones July 2009

2 What is RtI Response to Intervention (RtI) is the practice of:
providing high quality instruction and interventions matched to student need; monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction; and applying student response data to important educational decisions.

3 High Quality Instruction and Intervention
Instruction or interventions matched to student needs Demonstrated through scientific research and practice To produce high learning rates for most students. Selection of scientifically researched based interventions increases probability of positive student results. Interventions are selected based on each individual students response.

4 Monitoring Progress Frequently
Monitor learning rate (students individual growth in achievement competencies over time) Monitor level of performance (students standing of performance compared to expected performance)

5 Important Educational Decisions
Decisions regarding the use of more or less intense interventions are made using information individual student learning rate and performance level. This includes decisions about eligibility for special education. Decisions are made based on student responsiveness to the instruction/intervention. Instruction/Interventions intensity changes based on student performance

6 Purpose of RtI Prevention Intervention
Determination of learning disabilities Prevention – Ensure that any problems student s may be experiencing are not related to ineffective teaching practices. Intervention – Instruction designed to meet the needs of student, providing support in small group, regular classroom, or elsewhere Determination of Learning Disability – Using data gathered through progress monitoring over an extended period , students eligibility as a student with a learning disability can be determined – must meet state criteria if this process is used.

7 Core Principles of RtI Effectively teach all students Intervene early
Use a multi-tier model of service delivery Use a problem-solving method to make decisions within the multi-tier model Use research based, scientifically validated interventions/instruction Monitor student progress Use data to make instructional decisions Use assessment for screening, diagnostic and progress monitoring purposes

8 Three Tiered Model Tier one is primary instruction – grade level material taught to all students. Tier-2 is designed to provide that additional support (Instructional time) and may need to be provided to 15% of the student population. Tier 3 - Depending on the degree of deficit and the number of skills that need to be remediated some students may need even more time for instruction.

9 Three Tier Model Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 All students
Preventive, Proactive Tier 2 Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Tier 3 Individual students Assessment based High intensity of longer duration

10 How to Implement RtI The Institute of Education Sciences offers five concrete recommendations with strategies for helping elementary schools implement an RtI framework to ensure that all students in the primary grades learn to read.

11 How to Implement RtI Screen all students for potential reading problems at the beginning of the year and again in the middle of the year. Provide differentiated reading instruction for all students based on assessments of students’ current reading levels (tier 1). Provide intensive, systematic instruction on up to three foundational reading skills in small groups to students who score below the benchmark score on universal screening. (tier 2). Monitor the progress of tier 2 students at least once a month. Use these data to determine whether students still require intervention. For those students still making insufficient progress, schoolwide teams should design a tier 3 intervention plan. Provide intensive instruction on a daily basis that promotes the development of the various components of reading proficiency to students who show minimal progress after reasonable time in tier 2 small group instruction (tier 3).

12 1. Screen all students Create a building-level team to facilitate the implementation of universal screening and progress monitoring. Select a set of efficient screening measures that identify children at risk for poor reading outcomes with reasonable degrees of accuracy. Use benchmarks or growth rates (or a combination of the two) to identify children at low, moderate, or high risk for developing reading difficulties.15

13 Universal Screening Universal screening is a critical first step in identifying students who are at risk for experiencing reading difficulties and who might need more instruction. Screening should take place at the beginning of each school year in kindergarten through grade 2. Schools should use measures that are efficient, reliable, and reasonably valid. See Handout 1

14 2. Provide differentiated reading instruction for all students – Tier 1
Provide training for teachers on how to collect and interpret student data on reading efficiently and reliably. Develop data-driven decision rules for providing differentiated instruction to students at varied reading proficiency levels for part of the day. Differentiate instruction—including varying time, content, and degree of support and scaffolding—based on students’ assessed skills.

15 Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated instruction occurs in tier 1. For example, during independent work time, students weak in vocabulary can practice vocabulary with a partner or in small groups Differentiated instruction applies to all students, while tier 2 instruction applies only to those students at risk in key areas.

16 3. Provide intensive, systematic instruction Tier 2
Use a curriculum that addresses the components of reading instruction (comprehension, fluency, phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary) and relates to students’ needs and developmental levels. Implement this program three to five times a week, for approximately 20 to 40 minutes. Build skills gradually and provide a high level of teacher-student interaction with opportunities for practice and feedback.

17 Tier 1 Instruction Tier 2 instruction should take place in small homogenous groups ranging from three to four students using curricula that address the major components of reading instruction The areas of instruction should be based on the results of students’ scores on universal screening. Instruction should be explicit (increased teacher/student interaction) and intensive (3-5 time/week for 20 to 40 minutes)

18 4. Monitor the progress Monitor progress of tier 2 students on a regular basis using grade appropriate measures. Progress monitoring should occur at least eight times during the school year. While providing tier 2 instruction, use progress monitoring data to identify students needing additional instruction. Consider using progress monitoring data to regroup tier 2 students approximately every six weeks.

19 Progress monitoring Schools should establish a schedule to assess tier 2 students at least monthly— reassigning students who have met benchmarks, Graphing students’ progress in reading in a reliable fashion, and Regrouping students who need continued instructional support. See Handout 2

20 5. Provide intensive instruction on a daily basis Tier 3
Implement concentrated instruction that is focused on a small but targeted set of reading skills. Adjust the overall lesson pace. Schedule multiple and extended instructional sessions daily. Include opportunities for extensive practice and high-quality feedback with one-on-one instruction. Plan and individualize tier 3 instruction using input from a school-based RtI team. Ensure that tier 3 students master a reading skill or strategy before moving on.

21 Tier 3 Instruction Instruction should be intensified by focusing on fewer high priority reading skills during lessons and scheduling multiple and extended instructional sessions. One-on-one or small group instruction also provides intensity as students have more opportunities to practice and respond. One-on-one instruction includes giving students feedback based on their individual responses, teaching students to mastery based on individual learning progress, and planning instruction with materials and an instructional sequence that meets individual student needs.

22 Other Implementation Considerations
Managing change Conduct a self assessment Establish the focus and a RtI implementation plan for the school Provide professional development Ensure there is integrity in the use of Standards/Curriculum by all teachers See Handouts 3 and 4

23 RtI “Designing, implementing and sustaining effective reading programs is everybody’s business.” Diamond, 2006

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