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Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems

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1 Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems
Chapter 22 Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems Mosby items and derived items © 2010, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

2 Development of the Reproductive Systems
Dependent on sex hormones Males—testosterone 6 to 7 weeks’ gestation, male embryos differentiate under the influence of testes-determining factor (TDF) Females—estrogen, FSH, and LH Gonads produce estrogen; in the absence of testosterone, there is a loss of the wolffian system, and the two gonads develop into ovaries Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) produced in the hypothalamus by 10 weeks’ gestation controlling the production of the gonadotropins LH and FSH LH and FSH levels rise until 28 weeks, stimulating estrogen and progesterone production Gonadostat-negative feedback mechanism controls GnRH sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

3 Development of the Reproductive Systems
Sexual differentiation in utero Homologous structures Gonads Ducts Mesonephric Paramesonephric sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

4 Development of the Reproductive Systems

5 Development of the Reproductive Systems

6 Development of the Reproductive Systems
Puberty Exact trigger unknown Females Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHAS) Begins with thelarche (breast development) in females Adrenarche Gonadarche sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

7 Development of the Reproductive Systems
Puberty Accelerated growth followed by thelarche 9 years of age in white girls 8 years of age in black girls Early puberty in girls linked to: Obesity Increased levels of leptin (a hormone secreted from adipose tissue); regulates appetite Leptin levels increase until puberty, then decrease as puberty advances Contributes to increased adipose tissue, allowing maturation to occur sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

8 Development of the Reproductive Systems
Puberty Males—testes begin to produce mature sperm Male puberty complete with the first ejaculation that contains mature sperm Females—ovaries begin to release mature ova Female puberty complete at first ovulatory menstrual period sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

9 Development of the Reproductive Systems

10 Female Reproductive System
External genitalia (vulva) Mons pubis Labia majora Labia minora Clitoris Vestibule sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

11 Female Reproductive System
External genitalia (vulva) Introitus Hymen Urinary meatus Lesser vestibular glands (Skene glands) Greater vestibular glands (Bartholin glands) Perineum sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

12 External Genitalia (Vulva)

13 Internal Genitalia Vagina Uterus Fallopian tubes Ovaries

14 Internal Genitalia sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

15 Uterine Position sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

16 Internal Genitalia sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

17 Ovary sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

18 Follicle Development sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

19 Female Sex Hormones Estrogens Progesterone Androgens Estradiol Estrone
Estriol Progesterone Androgens sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

20 Menstrual Cycle Menarche Menopause Phases Menstruation (menses)
Follicular/proliferative phase Luteal/secretory phase sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

21 Menstrual Cycle Ovarian cycle Uterine phases Vaginal response
Body temperature change sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

22 Menstrual Cycle sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

23 Male Reproductive System

24 Male Reproductive System
External genitalia Testes Essential organs of reproduction Produce gametes Produce sex hormones (androgens, testosterone) Suspended outside the pelvic cavity Sperm production requires an environment that is 1° or 2° C cooler than body temperature Epididymis Scrotum Penis sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

25 Male Reproductive System

26 Male Reproductive System

27 Male Reproductive System

28 Male Reproductive System
Internal genitalia Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Bulbourethral glands sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

29 Male Internal Genitalia

30 Spermatogenesis Spermatogonia Primary spermatocytes
Secondary spermatocytes Spermatids Sertoli cells sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

31 Spermatogenesis sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

32 Male Reproductive System

33 Male Sex Hormones Androgens Primary androgen—testosterone
Produced mainly in Leydig cells of the testes Testosterone Sexual differentiation Urogenital system development Nervous and skeletal tissue development Sex drive Dihydrotestosterone and prolactin sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

34 Male Sex Hormones Hormones secreted at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (H-P-T) axis Control and coordinate testicular function Positive and negative feedback signals Sex steroids inhibit hypothalamic GnRH secretion and pituitary LH responsiveness to GnRH Testicular inhibin that inhibits pituitary FSH and, possibly, circulating estrogens Disruption along the H-P-T axis may lead to hypogonadism or infertility sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

35 Structure and Function of the Breast
Modified sebaceous glands on the ventral surface of the thorax Female breast Nipple Areola Glands of Montgomery Male breast Until puberty, male and female development is similar Without sufficient influence of estrogen and progesterone, male breast does not develop any further sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

36 Structure and Function of the Breast

37 Structure and Function of the Breast

38 Tests of Reproductive Function
Infection and cancer tests Culture Serologic testing Tissue biopsy Needle biopsy Papanicolaou (Pap) test Mammography Fertility tests sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

39 Aging and the Female Reproductive System
Menopause Perimenopause Vasomotor symptoms Vasomotor flush Associated with fluctuation in estrogen levels not just estrogen loss sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

40 Aging and the Male Reproductive System
Reproductive capacity longer than woman’s No event comparable to menopause Decreased erectile and ejaculatory function Testes atrophy, decrease in weight, and soften Decreased levels of gonadotropins and testosterone sdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgsdfgdfgdfgsdfgsdfg

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