2 OutcomesUnderstand the language and literacy foundations with a focus on dialogic reading.Understand the language and literacy strategies outlined in the framework that focus on dialogic reading.Become familiar with the research supporting dialogic reading.These are the outcomes for today.Consider posting outcomes on a chart for reference while going through each agenda item.
3 Teacher views What is her dilemma? What is she looking for in an answer?What are some things that you do for similar results?
5 Two California Department of Education Resources We will be using two CDD resources during this session.(Click to reveal) Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1.This is the Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 (PLF). The foundations describe how children develop, grow, and learn.The preschool foundations are for all children and reflect the diversity found in California.(Click to reveal) Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1.This is the Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1(PCF). This framework presents strategies and information to help teachers enrich learning and development opportunities for all of California’s preschool children.Volume 1 contains the Language and Literacy domain which is what we will focus on today in discussing Dialogic Reading.5
10 Dyer, & Samwel, 1999; Lonigan & Whitehurst (1998). Take a Bite of ResearchDialogic reading by families and caregivers results in substantial positive change in language development.Read your quotesChoose the two that your table group connects with the mostVisually represent them to the groupDraw, skit, dance, etc.Arnold, Lonigan, Whitehurst, & Epstein, 1994; Lonigan, Anthony, Bloomfield,Dyer, & Samwel, 1999; Lonigan & Whitehurst (1998).Ice Breaker - Research BitesINTENT: The intent of this activity is for participants to become familiar with the supporting research that highlights the need for language and literacy intervention.OUTCOMES: Participants will choose some research information that they find particularly meaningful and will share a visual representation of that research.MATERIALS REQUIRED: Research Bites. Chart paper. Markers.TIME: 15 minutesPROCESS: Guide participants to find the research bites in the middle of their tables. Have them read the research bites as a table group. Groups should choose two bites that are particularly meaningful to them, discussing why they are so compelling. Groups will then create a visual representation of the research bites they have chosen. They will share this visual representation with the entire group. They can create a picture, a skit, a dance, etc. While each group is sharing their visual representation, the rest of the participants will guess which quote the group is representing.SUMMARY: As participants read and analyze the quotes, they will make connections between the research and their personal experiences, helping them form a strong impression regarding the importance of language and literacy interventions.10
19 Completion PromptsLeave a blank at the end of a sentence and get the child to fill it in.These are typically books with rhymes or repetitive phrases.With each description, weave in thinking about dual language learners. What level are your language learners at? What would specifically support these children?With each description, weave in thinking about children with special needs. What are the special needs of your children? What would specifically support these children?Completion prompts provide children with information about the structure of language that is critical to later reading.
20 Recall PromptsAsks questions about what happened in a book with which the child is familiar.Recall helps the child to understand the plot, and to describe a sequence of events.Recall works for almost all books except alphabet books.With each description, weave in thinking about dual language learners. What level are your language learners at? What would specifically support these children?With each description, weave in thinking about children with special needs. What are the special needs of your children? What would specifically support these children?
21 Open Ended PromptsPrompts that enable children to wonder about the book.Children may make their own version of the story.There is no right answer.With each description, weave in thinking about dual language learners. What level are your language learners at? What would specifically support these children?With each description, weave in thinking about children with special needs. What are the special needs of your children? What would specifically support these children?
22 Wh Prompts Questions that ask who, what, where, why, when, or how. Usually focuses on pictures that the teacher points to asking, “What’s the name of this?”Teaches children new vocabulary.With each description, weave in thinking about dual language learners. What level are your language learners at? What would specifically support these children?With each description, weave in thinking about children with special needs. What are the special needs of your children? What would specifically support these children?
23 Distancing PromptsAsks children to relate the pictures or words in the story to experiences that they have had.Helps the children form a bridge between the book and the world in which they live.Helps with verbal fluency, conversation, and narrative skills.With each description, weave in thinking about dual language learners. What level are your language learners at? What would specifically support these children?With each description, weave in thinking about children with special needs. What are the special needs of your children? What would specifically support these children?
24 PEERStrategies for asking questions and responding to children when reading a story:PROMPTEVALUATEEXPANDREPEAT
25 Review: Dialogic Reading in Action! Take out the Dialogic Reading Template (Handout 2).Fill in the CROWD questions as the teacher in the video facilitates the story.Have participants get out their video viewing guide and use the provided form to take notes. They will need these notes later in the presentation.(Presenters: Watch DVD up until Darla)Have participants share which prompts they saw/heard in video with an elbow partner.Have participants share out as an entire group.25
26 Dialogic Reading Technique Completion (fill in the blanks)Recall (remember the story)Open-ended questions (expand thinking)What do you think? What could happen? How could you? What would you do?Who? What? Where? When? Why/How? (ask questions)Distancing (relate questions to life experiences in class or home)Optional summary slide.CROWD is an acronym used to define and remind teachers about the use of questions. (Whitehurst, 1992)CROWD techniques promote comprehension through the use of questioning strategies.Skillful use of dialogic reading requires careful planning of prompts prior to reading a book with children.Completion prompts frame the sentence. Sentence frames begin the sentence and teach sentence structure.Text is used to spur the recollection of personal experiences, provoke questions about general knowledge, draw inferences, or make predictions to get children talking.26
28 Dialogic Reading Reflections and Planning Questions What is different from my current reading style?What do I like about this method of reading?What will be my planning process?What strategies can I begin to use next week?What books will I choose?My small group will have ____ children.Each day I will devote ____ minutes to small group reading.These are questions that teachers can ask to help them reflect on their instructional practice and to inform their planning process.Experiment with different schedules:Back to backSame time, use other staffStagger reading groups am/pmChoose a reading area or space that already contains books:LibraryUse outer space separate from classModify new areaGroup size:Between 4 and 6Group according to temperaments, language skills, personalities, or social dynamicsELL children with each other or with others who they can learn language fromDoyle and Bramwell’s article, on page 560, has excellent implementation tips andquestions to help self assess and evaluate instructional practice.
36 Best Practice Dialogic Reading Strategies to Support English Language Learners Repeated readings are very importantUse a word in a sentence that is different from the sentence used in the bookEngage parental support by sending home translated versions of the storyGive explicit understandable definitions of words while reading aloudProvide parents translations of key words that you will focus on in schoolHandout 1: All the best practice information is listed on one handout.All of these strategies promote English language vocabulary acquisition and can be used with all children to develop their vocabulary.According to David Dickinson (2005)Children have better long-term academic success when they have a strong first language. Teachers should value their first language and build children’s oral language skills from that foundation.Repeated readings help English learners become familiar with new words and support them learning to retell the story.Teachers can create translated versions of stories and send them home prior to reading the book in class.Definition and synonym example:Hesitant-reluctant = not so sureCan you think of another word that you can give a child a simple definition of?Dickinson (2005)
37 Practicing Best Practices Find your CROWD questionsBrainstorm for ideas to enhance experienceChoose one idea to fully developBe prepared to share with the groupPracticing Best PracticeINTENT: The intent of this activity is for participants to try using best practice techniques to plan dialogic reading.OUTCOMES: Participants will use multi-sensory techniques to better develop their dialogic reading skills.MATERIALS REQUIRED: Carrot Soup book (or another chosen book). Video Reflection handout with CROWD questions. Preschool Curriculum Framework (PCF). Extra materials on back table (construction paper, markers, objects, instruments, etc.)TIME: 20 minutesPROCESS: Have each group take a storybook from the middle of the table. Ask groups to review the CROWD questions that they recorded earlier. Thinking about the best practice suggestions from the PowerPoint, ask groups to brainstorm for at least 5 different ideas to enhance the dialogic reading experience. After 5 minutes have passed, invite participants to choose one idea to fully develop. Let them know that they will be given 10 minutes to develop their ideas, after which they will share out with the entire group. Guide participants to the back table where they can choose any extra materials that they would like to use. After they have had 10 minutes to work on their idea, invite participants to regroup as a whole and begin sharing out. After each group has shared out, debrief with the following focused conversation questions: What ideas did you hear or see? What was the most exciting idea? Why was that idea particularly exciting to you? How would you implement that idea?OPTIONS: If the group is too large, have table groups partner up and share out with each other.SUMMARY: Participants will create best practice ideas to support the dialogic reading of a familiar story, and will share those ideas with one another.
38 I pinky promise to…… How can you implement dialogic reading? How will it most benefit your class?What are you excited about?Tell your elbow partner“I pinky promise to…”I pinky promise to……
40 ReferencesBeck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.Biemiller, A. (2001). Teaching Vocabulary: Early, direct, and sequential. The American Educator, 25(1),Biemiller, A. (in press). Vocabulary Development and Instruction: A prerequisite for school learning. In Neuman, S.B. and Dickinson, D.K. (Eds.), The Handbook of Early Literacy Research (vol 2). New York: The Guilford Press.