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Hormones & Homeostasis

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Presentation on theme: "Hormones & Homeostasis"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hormones & Homeostasis
Endocrine System Hormones & Homeostasis

2 Homeostasis Homeostasis maintaining internal balance in the body
organism must keep internal conditions stable even if environment changes also called “dynamic equilibrium” example: body temperature humans: too cold = shiver too warm = sweat lizard: too cold = bask in sun too warm = hide in shade

3 Regulation How we maintain homeostasis nervous system endocrine system
nerve signals control body functions endocrine system hormones chemical signals control body functions

4 Controlling Body Temperature
Nervous System Control Feedback Controlling Body Temperature nerve signals brain sweat dilates surface blood vessels high body temperature low constricts surface blood vessels shiver brain nerve signals

5 Hormones Why are hormones needed?
chemical messages from one body part to cells in other parts of body communication needed to coordinate whole body maintaining homeostasis growth hormones

6 Endocrine System Endocrine system releases hormones
glands which secrete (release) chemical signals into blood chemicals cause changes in other parts of body growth hormones sex hormones response hormones metabolism hormones and more…. Hormones coordinate slower but longer–acting responses to stimuli such as stress, dehydration, and low blood glucose levels. Hormones also regulate long–term developmental processes by informing different parts of the body how fast to grow or when to develop the characteristics that distinguish male from female or juvenile from adult. Hormone–secreting organs, called endocrine glands, are referred to as ductless glands because they secrete their chemical messengers directly into extracellular fluid. From there, the chemicals diffuse into the circulation.

7 Responding to hormones
Lock and key system hormone fits receptor on “target” cell target cell secreting cell non- target cells can’t read signal can’t read signal

8 Glands Pineal Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal Pancreas Ovary Testes
melatonin Pituitary many hormones: master gland Thyroid thyroxine Adrenal adrenaline Pancreas insulin, glucagon Ovary estrogen Testes testosterone

9 Maintaining homeostasis
Feedback Maintaining homeostasis hormone 1 gland lowers body condition high specific body condition low raises body condition gland hormone 2

10 specific body condition
Negative Feedback Response to changed body condition if body is high or low from normal level signal tells body to make changes that will bring body back to normal level once body is back to normal level, signal is turned off hormone 1 gland lowers body condition high specific body condition

11 Regulation of Blood Sugar
Endocrine System Control Feedback Regulation of Blood Sugar insulin body cells take up sugar from blood liver stores sugar reduces appetite pancreas liver high blood sugar level (90mg/100ml) low liver releases sugar triggers hunger pancreas liver glucagon

12 Everyone’s doing it, so Ask Questions!!

13 Sex & Growth Hormones Large scale body changes how do they work
turn genes on start new processes in the body by turning genes on that were lying “dormant”

14 Pituitary gland hormones
Sex & reproductive hormones FSH follicle stimulating hormone stimulates egg & sperm production LH luteinizing hormone stimulates ovaries & testes prepares uterus for fertilized egg oxytocin stimulates childbirth contractions releases milk in nursing mothers prolactin milk production in nursing mothers hormones hormones

15 Reproductive hormones
Testosterone from testes sperm production & secondary sexual characteristics Estrogen from ovaries egg production, preparing uterus for fertilized egg & secondary sexual characteristics

16 Male reproductive system
Sperm production over 100 million produced per day! ~2.5 million released per drop!

17 seminiferous tubule sperm spermatocytes

18 Male reproductive system
Testes & epididymis sperm production & maturation Glands seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethal produce seminal fluid nutrient-rich

19 Male reproductive system
Testicles produces sperm & hormones Scrotum sac that holds testicles outside of body Epididymis where sperm mature Vas deferens tubes for sperm to travel from testes to penis Prostate, seminal vesicles, Cowper’s (bulbourethal) glands nutrient rich fluid to feed & protect sperm

20 Female reproductive system

21 Female reproductive system
Ovaries produces eggs & hormones Uterus nurtures fetus; lining builds up each month Fallopian tubes tubes for eggs to travel from ovaries to uterus Cervix opening to uterus, dilates 10 cm for birthing baby Vagina birth canal for birthing baby

22 Female reproductive system

23 Egg maturation in ovary
releases progesterone maintains uterus lining produces estrogen

24 Menstrual cycle Controlled by interaction of 4 hormones FSH & LH
estrogen progesterone FSH ovulation = egg release egg development corpus luteum estrogen progesterone lining of uterus days 7 14 21 28

25 Female reproductive cycle
Feedback Female reproductive cycle egg matures & is released (ovulation) builds up uterus lining estrogen ovary corpus luteum progesterone FSH & LH fertilized egg (zygote) maintains uterus lining HCG yes pituitary gland corpus luteum pregnancy GnRH no progesterone corpus luteum breaks down progesterone drops menstruation maintains uterus lining hypothalamus

26 Female hormones FSH & LH Estrogen Progesterone released from pituitary
stimulates egg development & hormone release peak release = release of egg (ovulation) Estrogen released from ovary cells around developing egg stimulates growth of lining of uterus decreasing levels causes menstruation Progesterone released from “corpus luteum” in ovaries cells that used to take care of developing egg stimulates blood supply to lining of uterus

27 Fertilization

28 Any Questions??

29 What do they do? Maintain homeostasis Start a new process
Body Temperature Maintain homeostasis blood sugar level temperature control Start a new process growth fetal development sexual development

30 Negative Feedback Negative feedback
every time body is high or low from normal level a signal tells the body to make changes that will bring body back body temperature control of blood sugar

31 Regulation by chemical messengers
Neurotransmitters released by neurons Hormones release by endocrine glands endocrine gland neurotransmitter axon hormone carried by blood receptor proteins receptor proteins target cell

32 Body Regulation Nervous system & Endocrine system work together
hypothalamus “master nerve control center” receives information from nerves around body about internal conditions communicates with pituitary gland “master gland” releases many hormones sexual development, growth, milk production, pain-relief hormones

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