Presentation on theme: "Cancer Warriors Recap What does “angiogenesis” mean? New blood vessel growth How did Dr. Folkman think cancerous tumors could be stopped? Stop blood vessel."— Presentation transcript:
Cancer Warriors Recap What does “angiogenesis” mean? New blood vessel growth How did Dr. Folkman think cancerous tumors could be stopped? Stop blood vessel growth (blood supply) Cancer cells can metastasize. What does this mean? Cells can travel/spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer Warriors Recap Why would a tumor cell continue to make a blood vessel inhibitor? Primary tumor makes small amount of inhibitor to prevent new blood vessel growth to cancerous cells in other places in the body. Why did they name the inhibitor angiostatin? Stops blood vessel growth *Endostatin- new inhibitor
Cancer Cancer begins when a single cell mutates. This mutated cell then begins to divide out of control. All the cells produced from this original cell will also divide more often than normal cells.
Mutations Genetic transformation…something in the GENE changes and this causes the cell to function and develop differently from a normal cell.
Carcinogens = cancer causing agents Examples? UV light, X-rays, chemicals in cigarette smoke Inheritance = mutations that are passed from parent to child Examples? Colon cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer
Genes that can be mutated & trigger cancer growth Proto-oncogenes are genes that help cells divide. When this gene mutates it becomes an oncogene, which makes a cell divide too much.
Tumor suppressor genes are genes that stop cells from dividing. When it mutates it can’t stop cells from dividing when they should stop. Scientific name of a cancer doctor? oncologist
Some Definitions Malignant tumor is a tumor that is invasive and invades healthy tissue. Benign tumor is a non- cancerous tumor. It does not invade healthy tissue, organs or other parts of the body.
Metastasis is when cancerous cells may get into the blood stream or the lymph system and travel to other parts of the body where they may form other tumors.
How are cancer cells different? 1.Cancer cells have a bigger nucleus. 2.Cancer cells lack contact inhibition. Normally when cells come in contact with each other they stop dividing. Cancer cells do not “obey” this signal. 3.Cancer cells have unusual numbers of chromosomes. 4.Cancerous cells lose their attachments to neighboring cells.
Cancer develops over a long period of time. Cancer is a long and complex process of genetic changes. Many mutations must develop together in one cell. This is why the incidence of cancer increases with age.
How does your body defend against developing cancer? Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes help cells divide normally. DNA repair system - throughout your life your genes are constantly under attack from both carcinogens and from chemicals produced in your cells.
These cause errors in the genes or during the DNA replication process. This system is good at fixing mistakes which is why it takes many years before all of the mutations required for cancer to develop. Apoptosis (cell suicide) - p53 gene “encourages” cell suicide in damaged cells.