On the road, this sign means “stop.” In a sentence, this sign means “stop.” These signs also mean “stop.” They also signify the end of a sentence. ?!
Each mark of punctuation tells the reader something that he/she needs to know., Comma—This mark tells you to pause. “ ” Quotation marks—These marks tell you that someone is speaking. ‘ This is an apostrophe. It indicates where a letter has been taken out of a word in a contraction. And it indicates ownership for a possessive noun. : This is a colon. It means “note the following.” It is also used to separate chapter and verse in the Bible. It is also used between the hour and the minute when a person is writing the time of day. A semicolon is used much the way we use a comma with a coordinating conjunction—to separate two independent clauses. ;
When to use a comma : 1.To separate items in a series 2.To separate two independent clauses in a compound sentence 3.To separate a dependent clause from an independent clause in a complex sentence if the sentence is introduced with an adverb clause 4.To set apart a nonessential phrase or a noun in apposition 5.To separate the date from the year when writing the date—August 28, 2000,
Items in a series: Rick, Jonathan, Michael, and Jason decided to try out for basketball. She had to buy paint, tape, drop cloths, and brushes before she began her project. Compound sentences: She bought the materials she needed, and she began her project. The athlete had been drafted by the pros, but he wanted to finish out his senior year.
Complex sentences: After he finished his classes, Raymond still had three hours of band practice to look forward to. Although Raymond knew that practice was essential, he would rather do something else. Nonessential clauses and nouns in apposition: Vicki, who has been my best friend for many years, has been teaching for almost thirty years.
Quotation Marks These are easy. We use quotation marks to show exactly what someone says. When we paraphrase what a person says, we don’t use quotation marks. “Get those prices by end of business today or start looking for another job,” shouted Mr. Gallagher to Andrew. Andrew told his wife that Mr. Gallagher threatened to fire him if he didn’t get the prices by end of business. Which sentence is more powerful?
Get those prices by end of business today or start looking for another job!
Apostrophes Use an apostrophe to show where a letter or letters have been taken out to form a contraction. I am= I’m they are= they’re it is= it’s Use an apostrophe to show possession of a noun. Joe’s desk Andrew’s job Renee’s coat POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS DO NOT USE APOSTROPHES! The dog hurt its paw. Not: The dog hurt it’s paw. (It is paw???)
Colons: Colons tell us to “note the following.” We use them when we are about to list something. We use them to separate Biblical chapter and verse. We use them to separate the hour from the minute. Things to do: 1.Pay ticket 2.Finish homework 3.Go to store 4.Fix tire John 3:16 It is 9:45.
Semicolons: Semicolons and colons are not interchangeable. In fact one has nothing to do with the other in terms of function. We use a semicolon in the same way we use a comma combined with a coordinating conjunction—to separate two independent but related clauses. : ; Colon Semicolon
I wanted desperately to apologize. I knocked on the door. He answered it, but he closed the door in my face. I wanted desperately to apologize. I knocked on the door. He answered it; he closed the door in my face. Semicolons are “written” punctuation. We would have a hard time determining if a speaker is using a period, a comma- conjunction combo, or a semicolon. For writing, though, semicolons can give an essential effect. Read the following: