Presentation on theme: "Punctuation Marks. Comma Rules Use commas after each item except the last in a series of three or more items. I bought apples, bananas, and oranges at."— Presentation transcript:
Comma Rules Use commas after each item except the last in a series of three or more items. I bought apples, bananas, and oranges at the grocery store.
Comma Rules Use commas after first, second, third, and so on when they introduce items in a series. There are three steps to the project: first, choose a book; second, read it; third, write an essay on the theme.
Comma Rules Use commas between adjectives of equal rank that modify the same noun. “Equal Rank” means that they are interchangeable The young, beautiful girl watched the parade. The brown wool coat was on sale. The sentence doesn’t make sense if you change around the adjectives, so you don’t use commas
Comma Rules Use commas after an introductory phrase or mild interjection. Oh, I have a package for you.
Comma Rules Use commas after an introductory prepositional phrase. At the beginning of the hour, you will take a quiz.
Comma Rules Use commas after an infinitive phrase, participial phrase, or adverb clause. To do well in English 9, you must study. Taking a deep breath, I opened the oven door. When the door was opened, smoke filled the air.
Comma Rules Use commas to set off words that interrupt the flow of thought. My family, by the way, is excited about the parade.
Comma Rules Use commas to set off nouns of direct address. Connor, put away your toys.
Comma Rules Use commas to set off nonessential appositives. Josh, my husband, works at Thomson.
Comma Rules Use commas when the reader might be confused without them. Before the circus clowns entertained the children Before the circus, clowns entertained the children.
Comma Rules Use commas to separate direct quotations from explanatory words. Connor said, “This is fun.” “I love the smell of popcorn,” I said. “Yeah,” Josh added, “ I liked the performance.”
Comma Rules Use commas to separate independent clauses joined by a conjunction. We went to the store, and we bought doughnuts. We had a test in math, but I did not study.
Comma Rules Use commas to set off nonessential clauses. The test, which was over clauses, was easy. The man, whose daughter is in my class, offered to chaperone.
Comma Rules – Letter Writing Dear Mrs. Brunskole, I wanted to have you come to my party on November 15, 2009, at my house. My address is 123 West Street, Grand Blanc, MI, 48439. Hope you can come! Sincerely, Your Student
Semicolons Use a semicolon to join the parts of a compound sentence when no coordinating conjunction is used. The turkey was done on time; my in- laws were late. The lines at the airport were long; Connor got bored quickly.
Semicolons Use a semicolon before a conjunctive adverb that joins the clauses of a compound sentence. Conjunctive Adverbs are on p. 27 The parade was great; however, it was a little long for the kids.
Semicolons Use semicolons to separate the parts of a series when commas occur within the parts. There were three steps to the project: first, choose a partner; second, complete the task; and third, clean up. This summer, I visited Paris, France; Rome, Italy; and London, England.
Colons Use a colon to introduce a list of items that are not needed in the sentence. We did the following things: ice skated, sledded, and skied. NEVER use a colon after a verb to introduce a list! I bought: apples, pears, and bananas.
Colons Use a colon between two independent clauses when the second explains or summarizes the first. My in-laws were late: they had a flat tire.
Colons Use a colon to introduce a long or formal quotation. Mrs. Brunskole told us something very important: “Grammar will help you get through a lot of difficult situations in life.”
Colons Use a colon following the greeting in a business letter. To Whom It May Concern: Dear Sir or Madam: Use a colon for the time of day. 3:30 4:45 Use a colon for references to some holy books. Psalms 23:7 Qur’an 75:22