2 Vocab you should know…Cellular reproduction: the way that cells reproduceAsexual reproduction: reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes; where one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to it
3 More vocab…Binary fission: division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cellsMitosis: period of nuclear cell division in which two daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomesInterphase: cell growth phase where a cell increases in size, carries on metabolism, and duplicates chromosomes prior to division
4 More vocab…Prophase: 1st & longest phase of mitosis where chromatin coils into visible chromosomesChromatin: long, tangles strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus during interphaseChromosomes: cell structures that carry the genetic material that is copied & passed from generation to generation of cells
5 More vocab…Metaphase: short second phase of mitosis where doubled chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle & chromatids are attached by centromeres to a separate spindle fiberChromatids: one of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosisCentromeres: region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
6 More vocab…Anaphase: phase of mitosis where centromeres split and the chromatid pairs of each chromosome are pulled apart by microbtubulesMicrotubules: thin, hollow cylinders made of protein that provide structural support for eukaryotic cells
7 More vocab…Telophase: final phase of mitosis during which nuclear membranes form around each new set of chromosomesHaploid: cell with one of each kind of chromosome (n)Diploid: cell with two of each kind of chromosome (2n)
8 More vocab…Cytokinesis: cell process following mitosis in which the cell’s cytoplasm divides & separates into two new daughter cellsCell plate: precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division & divides the cell into two
9 CELLULAR REPRODUCTION - BASICS Two basic types:Binary fissionCell cycle
10 Prokaryotic Reproduction Binary fissionIt’s a form of asexual reproductionMost prokaryotic cells reproduce this way
12 Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction: The Cell Cycle Interphase: repeating set of events in the life of a cell, made of 3 phases; time between cell divisions, duplication of DNA & cell partsMitosis: reproduction & division of nucleusCytokinesis: division of cytoplasm & formation of new cellsCell Cycle Simulation
13 INTERPHASEInterphase: Longest phase of cell division; divided into 3 phases; starts after the last cell division when daughter (offspring) cells are about ½ the size of the parent cellsG1 phase: cell growth – offspring cells grow to adult sizeS phase: DNA is copied & cell parts are duplicatedG2 phase: cell growth & preparation for divisionKangaroo rat interphase
14 InterphaseInterphase: organelles double in #, DNA replicates, protein synthesis occurs, chromosomes are not visible b/c DNA appears as uncoiled chromatin.
26 Cytokinesis; last phase of cell cycle Cytokinesis follows mitosis;dividing cell separates into 2 diploid daughter cellsDifferent in animal and plant cells
27 Cytokinesis in animal cells animal cells lack a cell wall and are surrounded only by a plasma membraneCleavage furrow deepens until the two furrows meet & pinch apart the cytoplasm creating two separate cells called daughter cellsCytokinesis real timeKangaroo rat cytokinesis
29 Cytokinesis in plant cells plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall in addition to the plasma membraneA cell plate is formed along the equator of the cell & separates the cytoplasm into two daughter cells.
31 Cellular Reproduction Quiz What are the two basic types of cellular reproduction?Binary fission is a type of _________ reproduction.What are the 3 phases of the cell cycle in eukaryotic reproduction?
32 Quiz Cont’d What happens to the DNA during interphase? What are the 4 phases of mitosis?During what phase of mitosis do the duplicated chromosomes line up at the equator?During which phase do the sister chromatids move towards opposite poles?
33 Quiz Cont’d During which phase does the nuclear membrane reform? How many cells are there at the end of cytokinesis?What is different in plant cell cytokinesis than in animal cell cytokinesis?