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Presentation on theme: "CELLULAR REPRODUCTION"— Presentation transcript:


2 Vocab you should know… Cellular reproduction: the way that cells reproduce Asexual reproduction: reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes; where one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to it

3 More vocab… Binary fission: division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells Mitosis: period of nuclear cell division in which two daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes Interphase: cell growth phase where a cell increases in size, carries on metabolism, and duplicates chromosomes prior to division

4 More vocab… Prophase: 1st & longest phase of mitosis where chromatin coils into visible chromosomes Chromatin: long, tangles strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus during interphase Chromosomes: cell structures that carry the genetic material that is copied & passed from generation to generation of cells

5 More vocab… Metaphase: short second phase of mitosis where doubled chromosomes move to the equator of the spindle & chromatids are attached by centromeres to a separate spindle fiber Chromatids: one of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis Centromeres: region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

6 More vocab… Anaphase: phase of mitosis where centromeres split and the chromatid pairs of each chromosome are pulled apart by microbtubules Microtubules: thin, hollow cylinders made of protein that provide structural support for eukaryotic cells

7 More vocab… Telophase: final phase of mitosis during which nuclear membranes form around each new set of chromosomes Haploid: cell with one of each kind of chromosome (n) Diploid: cell with two of each kind of chromosome (2n)

8 More vocab… Cytokinesis: cell process following mitosis in which the cell’s cytoplasm divides & separates into two new daughter cells Cell plate: precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division & divides the cell into two

Two basic types: Binary fission Cell cycle

10 Prokaryotic Reproduction
Binary fission It’s a form of asexual reproduction Most prokaryotic cells reproduce this way

11 Binary Fission Owl 154

12 Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction: The Cell Cycle
Interphase: repeating set of events in the life of a cell, made of 3 phases; time between cell divisions, duplication of DNA & cell parts Mitosis: reproduction & division of nucleus Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm & formation of new cells Cell Cycle Simulation

13 INTERPHASE Interphase: Longest phase of cell division; divided into 3 phases; starts after the last cell division when daughter (offspring) cells are about ½ the size of the parent cells G1 phase: cell growth – offspring cells grow to adult size S phase: DNA is copied & cell parts are duplicated G2 phase: cell growth & preparation for division Kangaroo rat interphase

14 Interphase Interphase: organelles double in #, DNA replicates, protein synthesis occurs, chromosomes are not visible b/c DNA appears as uncoiled chromatin.

15 Interphase

16 MITOSIS Mitosis: Divided into 4 different phases follows interphase
Is followed by cytokinesis

17 Mitosis

18 Mitosis: Prophase, step 1
Nuclear membrane & nucleolus disappear; chromatin condenses & chromosomes become visible as chromatids; sister chromatids pair up; spindle fibers are assembled. Kangaroo rat prophase

19 Mitosis: Prophase

20 Mitosis: Metaphase, step 2
Sister chromatid pairs line up along the cell’s equator; spindle fiber attach to the centromeres holding them together. Kangaroo rat metaphase

21 Mitosis: Metaphase

22 Mitosis: Anaphase, step 3
Sister chromatids split apart at the centromere as the spindle fibers shorten & “pull” them toward opposite poles; cleavage furrow appears. Kangaroo rat anaphase

23 Mitosis: Anaphase

24 Mitosis: Telophase, step 4
Chromatids reach opposite poles, nuclear membrane & nucleoli reform, cleavage furrow deepens; spindle fibers disappear; chromatids uncoil to chromatin. Kangaroo rat telophase

25 Mitosis: Telophase

26 Cytokinesis; last phase of cell cycle
Cytokinesis follows mitosis; dividing cell separates into 2 diploid daughter cells Different in animal and plant cells

27 Cytokinesis in animal cells
animal cells lack a cell wall and are surrounded only by a plasma membrane Cleavage furrow deepens until the two furrows meet & pinch apart the cytoplasm creating two separate cells called daughter cells Cytokinesis real time Kangaroo rat cytokinesis

28 Cytokinesis in Animal Cells

29 Cytokinesis in plant cells
plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall in addition to the plasma membrane A cell plate is formed along the equator of the cell & separates the cytoplasm into two daughter cells.

30 Cytokinesis in plant cells

31 Cellular Reproduction Quiz
What are the two basic types of cellular reproduction? Binary fission is a type of _________ reproduction. What are the 3 phases of the cell cycle in eukaryotic reproduction?

32 Quiz Cont’d What happens to the DNA during interphase?
What are the 4 phases of mitosis? During what phase of mitosis do the duplicated chromosomes line up at the equator? During which phase do the sister chromatids move towards opposite poles?

33 Quiz Cont’d During which phase does the nuclear membrane reform?
How many cells are there at the end of cytokinesis? What is different in plant cell cytokinesis than in animal cell cytokinesis?


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