Presentation on theme: "Filets for France Fish-heads for the Philippines Prepared by Marc Allain for Greenpeace International WTO Public Forum September 26, 2006 International."— Presentation transcript:
Filets for France Fish-heads for the Philippines Prepared by Marc Allain for Greenpeace International WTO Public Forum September 26, 2006 International fish trade, tariff reduction and sustainability
World Fisheries Production Source: FAO, Review of the state of world marine fishery resources (2005)
Trade flows (2002 Export values %) High value species/products flow North (shrimp, salmon, tuna, grounfish, lobster, octopus) North North South (42 %) (43%) Low value species/products flow South (pelagics/fishmeal & oil) North South South (6.5%) (8.5%)
Trade flows High net surplus in fish trade for Developing countries (20 Billion US$ - 2004) –LIFDC: 9 billion US$ net surplus (2003) –Helps reduce balance of payments problem
Tariff overview main markets EU –MFN average for seafood 12% –Lots of tariff peaks and tariff escalation US –Seafood tariffs much lower than EU –Anti-dumping levies very high (shrimp/catfish) Japan –Seafood tariffs higher than US lower than EU –Some tariff escalation & peaks –Import quotas
Theory of fish trade liberalization Tariff cuts change price –Consumers pay less –Producers get paid more Price change increases supply In fisheries supply can only increase up to maximum sustainable levels
Theory of fish trade liberalization Ineffective management leads to overfishing and depletion. Fish trade liberalization can only bring sustainable benefits if effective fisheries management exists in both exporting and importing countries.
UNEP case studies Mauritania, Argentina & Senegal Duty free access to EU for fish exports in exchange for EU access to stocks
Mauritania Duty free access to EU in 1987 Majority of demersal species now over-exploited. – Shark and ray stocks heading towards extinction –Previously plentiful species have disapeared from Mauritanian waters –Discards and dumping so voluminous creating marine polution problems –Food security worsening Government under IFI pressure to sell off fisheries resources to meet minimal economic growth targets.
Argentina Duty free access to EU 1994 Fish production & exports increased rapidly in a context of enormous deficiencies in fisheries management. In 97 TAC exceeded by 111%. By 2002 – 6 Argentine stocks endangered
Externalizing the costs Cost benefit analysis of argentine hake fishery: –Private fish companies: + 1.6 billion US$ –Fishworkers: + 1.4 billion US$ –Argentine state: +.05 billion US$ –Future generations -3.5 billion US$ The market is short sighted with respect to any concern for future generations and a sustainable environment.
Senegal Duty free access to EU has created a conservation crisis & undermined food security. –Catch rates falling for all species but export species especially high/some threatened with extinction. –Export species being fished before they reach sexual maturity –Dragging in offshore areas has destroyed & changed habitat, eroded biodiversity & induced ecological replacement. –Quantity & quality of domestic supply diminished & costs to consumers increasing.
Conclusions Senegal, Mauritania, Argentina are not exceptions in fisheries management. Developing countries –Cant afford fisheries management. –Squeezed by IFIs to increase exports. –Preyed upon by fishing nations.
Conclusions Only handful of fish exporting developed countries will benefit longterm from tariff cuts: Canada, Norway, Island, New Zealand. Short/medium term gains for Thailand. All others will lose.
Conclusions Tariff cuts in this context will only accelerate resource depletion, loss of biodiversity, undermine food security, livelihoods and employment in LDCs. When this happens we all lose.
Conclusions Fundamental incoherence of Doha. If Doha is about sustainable trade & development for LDCs then it cant be about fisheries.