3 8.1. IntroductionWhile it is generally accepted that free trade maximizes world output and benefits all nations, most nations impose some restrictions on the free flow of international trade.Trade policies are advocated by special groups that stand to benefit from trade restrictions.Table 8.1. Tariffs on Nonagricultural Products in the U.S. the EU, Japan, and Canada in 2007Table 8.1.Tariffs on Nonagricultural Products in the U.S. the EU, Japan, and Canada in 2007
5 8.1. IntroductionWhat are trade (commercial) policies?What are the effects of trade restrictions?Why do nations impose trade restrictions?
6 Import vs. export tariffs 8.1. IntroductionImport vs. export tariffsAn import tariff is a tax or duty levied on imported commodities.This is the most common form of tariff.An export tariff is a tax on exported commodities.Prohibited by the U.S. Constitution, but occasionally practiced in developing countries to generate government revenue.