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First Political Parties

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1 First Political Parties
Chapter 8, Section 3

2 We will learn… How political parties got started and what positions they supported How John Adams and Thomas Jefferson became candidates of opposing parties in the election of 1796

3 Washington's Farewell Washington warned against permanent alliances with foreign nations This will be U.S. policy until almost 1900 He also described the “evils” of political parties and warned that they would divide the nation

4 Political Parties Modern Political Parties Today’s Democratic Party traces its roots to Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans. The modern Republican Party, however, was not founded until 1854.

5 Study Guide recap: Precedents – examples or traditions to be followed
Neutrality – not choosing sides Impressment – British practice of kidnapping American sailors National debt – amount a nation’s government owes

6 Study Guide recap: Bill of Rights – first 10 Amendments added to the Constitution Anthony Wayne – General that defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers John Adams – first vice president Aaron Burr – Jefferson’s running mate in 1796 Little Turtle – chief of the Miami people

7 Study Guide recap: Judiciary Act of 1789 – allowed Congress to establish a federal court system Edmond Randolph – first attorney general Alexander Hamilton – first Secretary of the Treasury (responsible for the finances) Edmond Genet – French diplomat who tried to recruit Americans to fight against the British

8 Study Guide recap: Question #2
Federalist – Alexander Hamilton - rule by the wealthy class, strong federal government, British alliance, national bank, loose interpretation of the Constitution Democratic-Republicans – Thomas Jefferson - rule by the people, stronger state governments, French alliance, state banks (no national bank), strict interpretation of the Constitution

9 Origins of Party Federalists
Originally described someone who supported the constitution Applied to people who supported the policies of Washington’s administration

10 Origins of Party Democratic-Republicans
Newspaper National Gazette started by Philip Freneau helped turn public opinion against Federalists Help from Thomas Jefferson Jefferson and Madison organized people who disagreed with Hamilton

11 Basic Differences Federalists Stood for strong central government
Supported Britain Favored shipping (exporting) interests Favored a National Bank Favored protective tariffs More support in the north

12 Basic Differences Democratic-Republicans
Wanted to limit government power Emphasis on agriculture Wanted to ally with France Favored state banks Favored free trade Favored strong state governments More support in the south

13 Leaders Federalists Alexander Hamilton George Washington John Adams
Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson James Madison

14 View of the Constitution
Federalists Loose interpretation of the Constitution Thought the government had “implied” powers

15 View of the Constitution
Democratic-Republicans Strict interpretation of the Constitution Also thought government had “implied” powers but only to be used when absolutely necessary

16 People’s Role Federalists
Supported representative government – elected officials ruled for the people Didn’t want public to be involved in politics Public office should only be held by educated, honest men who could protect people’s rights

17 People’s Role Democratic Republicans
Feared strong central government controlled by a few Thought liberty was safe only when ordinary people participated in government

18 Political Parties Emerge
DO NOW: Political Parties Emerge (use pages 267 – 269 to help you) 3 reasons why two distinct political parties were created 2 opposing view points on each side 1 leader for each side

19 Election of 1796 Federalists
Nominated vice-president John Adams for president and Charles Pickney for vice-president Expected to carry New England Adams won the presidency

20 Country now had a Federalist president and Republican vice-president
Election of 1796 Democratic-Republicans Nominated Thomas Jefferson for president Strength was in the south Won vice-president (electoral college elected president and vice-president separately) Country now had a Federalist president and Republican vice-president

21 DO NOW: Use the map to answer the questions
Who are the candidates in the election? Which states split their electoral vote? What are the three new states that were not part of the first election? Why would the coastal areas of MD, VA, and NC support the Federalists?


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