Following war with Spain Trade with China became a major concern Fearing that European imperial power would gain control over China’s exports and markets U.S. insisted on an Open Door Policy- leaving China open to the U.S. and other nations for trade and commerce.
Some Chinese nationalists wanted to end foreign influence in China. The Boxers (nationalists) massacred 300 foreigners and Chinese Christians in 1900 launching their Boxer Rebellion. The U.S. and other imperial powers sent troops to fight the Boxers and eventually put the rebellion down. This event strongly reaffirmed keeping the Open Door Policy in China
Open Door Policy- US wanted a larger share in the China Market. John Hay proposed that all nations be allowed to compete on equal terms; he was against the spheres of influence. › Region dominated and controlled by an outside power That made the U.S. appear more favorable to China.
Tension rose between America and Japan › Japan wanted to expand its influence in China Japan won. Japan asked the U.S. to intervened. Teddy Roosevelt convince Russia and Japan to sign the Treaty of Portsmouth to end the war. Japan gained ½ Sakhalen Island off the coast of Siberia. Russia agreed to let Japan take over its interests in Manchuria and Korea. Teddy Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in this.(1906)
America’s victory over Spain liberated Puerto Rican from Spanish rule Becomes a commonwealth (1952) Foraker Act, 1900 – provided a civil government, allowing the President of the U.S. appoint a governor. The President received the power to appoint members of the legislative upper house of Puerto Rico. Members of the lower house were elected.
1917- were granted more citizenship rights giving them greater control over their legislature. 1950- Puerto Rico drafted their own constitution. 1952- Puerto Rico became a commonwealth (could make its own laws and handle its own finances, while U.S. took care of defense and tariffs)
1903-U.S. government purchase the Panama route for $40 million Pres. Roosevelt dispatched warships to the water off Panama to support the rebellion against Colombia Panama declared its independence from Colombia They immediately granted the U.S. control of a 10-mile wide canal zone; paid Panama $10 million plus $250,000/annual rent Panama Canal opened August 15, 1914 › More than 5,000 of the 35,000 workers die during the construction of the canal from accidents or diseases.
The Monroe Doctrine was expanded. › Discouraged European intervention in the Western Hemisphere Roosevelt Corollary – update the Monroe Doctrine for economic imperialism The United States assume the role of police power, restoring order and depriving other creditors’ intervening This increase involvement became known as Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy
“Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.”
Following Roosevelt, William Taft sought › “Substitute money for bullets.” Policy of using the United States government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by U.S. businessmen This created enemies among Latin American who opposed U.S. involvement
The U.S. should promote democracy and moral progress in the world. He opposed imperialism The US shall not “seek one additional foot of territory by conquest.” Instead U.S. would work to promote “human rights, national integrity, and opportunity.” Would Wilson change his mind?
Yes War was raging in Mexico. August 1914- Venustiano Carranza took over the Mexican government. 1916- One of Carranza’s enemies, Pancho Villa, crossed the Rio Grande and killed 18 people Americans in New Mexico. President Wilson sent a force of 15,000 men to capture or kill Pancho Villa.
General John Pershing took 15, 000 men into Mexico to get Villa. In their pursuit, they nearly caused a war with Mexico. Pancho Villa was never caught. WWI took Wilson’s attention away from Mexico.
Divide a piece of unlined paper into 4 squares. In 3, you will provide the information for presidential diplomacy. Big Stick Dollar Moral/Mission In the 4 th, pick any Goal 6 Vocabulary word of your choice.. In each box you must have a visual representing the topic. Also, fully define in your own words the information. (For diplomacies, identify the president, describe the foreign policy, and then provide a quote of each president.)
US Possessions › Alaska › Philippines › Virgin Islands › Hawaii US Protectorates › Cuba › Panama › Nicaragua › Dominican Republic Color on a map of the world the influence of the US as of 1900. Create stripes of red and blue to show the Continental U.S. In BLUE, color the U.S. PROTECTORATES. In RED, color the U.S. Possessions. Be sure to label the places that you color on your map.