2 U.S. & ChinaAlthough the U.S. had been trading with nations like Japan in Asia, the Chinese market excited American business leaders, especially those in the clothing (textiles), oil, and steel industries.
3 War in AsiaIn 1894 China and Japan went to war over Korea, part of the Chinese empire.Japan had easily crushed China.The peace treaty gave Japan a region of China called Manchuria.Russia did not like this because Manchuria bordered Russia.
4 ManchuriaThe Russians forced Japan to return Manchuria, then demanded that China lease it to Russia.The territory would still belong to China but be under Russian control.
5 Sphere of InfluenceThen Germany, France, and Britain also wanted China to lease territory to them.Each leased area became the center of a sphere of influence where a foreign nation controlled economic development.
6 Open Door PolicyThe United States supported an Open Door policy in which all countries could trade with China.The U.S. Secretary of State asked nations with leaseholds in China to allow other nations to trade freely within China.
7 Boxer RebellionIn the meantime, secret Chinese societies such as the Boxers were working to rid China of foreign control.In the 1900 Boxer Rebellion, the Boxers seized foreign embassies in Beijing and killed more than 200 foreigners.An international force crushed the rebellion.
8 Election of 1900In the election of 1900, Theodore Roosevelt was President McKinley’s running mate. They won. On September 6, 1901, McKinley was shot by an anarchist. He died a few days later.
9 TR At 42, Roosevelt became the youngest president ever. Roosevelt supported the Open Door policy in China.He also helped to end a war between Japan and Russia in 1905.
10 Panama CanalIn 1903, Roosevelt decided to build a canal through Panama, which was then part of Colombia.President Roosevelt felt that a canal through central America was important to American’s power in the world.The United States offered Colombia $10 million and a yearly rent for the right to build the canal.Colombia refused the offer.
11 Colombia & PanamaThe people of Panama, however, wanted the benefits of having a canal.They also wanted independence from Colombia. Officials in Panama planned an uprising.Roosevelt sent ships to prevent Colombia from interfering.
12 Panama’s Independence In 1903, the United States recognized Panama’s independence, and the two nations signed a treaty allowing the canal to be built.
13 Roosevelt CorollaryRoosevelt’s approach to diplomacy came to be called the Roosevelt Corollary.It stated that the United States would intervene in Latin America when necessary to help the Western Hemisphere stay stable.The Roosevelt Corollary was first used to help the Dominican Republic, which had fallen behind on its debt payments to Europe.
14 Dollar DiplomacyPresident Taft continued Roosevelt’s policies but focused more on industry development than military force.This became known as dollar diplomacy.
15 Mexico Porfirio Díaz ruled Mexico until 1911. Under his rule, most Mexicans were poor and landless.They revolted.Francisco Madero replaced Díaz, but he proved to be a poor leader.General Victoriano Huerta had Madero murdered and seized power IN 1913.
16 Wilson’s Attitude on Mexico President Wilson opposed imperialism, but he believed that the United States should promote democracy.He therefore refused to recognize Huerta’s government.In April 1914, American sailors visiting Mexico were arrested for entering a restricted area.Mexico quickly released them, but refused to apologize.
17 Overthrowing HuertaWilson used this as an opportunity to overthrow Huerta.Anti-American riots followed this action.Venustiano Carranza became the Mexican president.
18 Pancho VillaMexican forces opposed to Carranza carried out raids into the United States.Guerrillas led by Pancho Villa burned the town of Columbus, New Mexico.Sixteen Americans died.Guerrilla fighters use surprise attacks and sabotage instead of open warfare.
19 American ResponseWilson sent General “Blackjack” John Pershing and his soldiers or troops into Mexico to capture Villa, but they failed.Wilson’s actions in Mexico hurt U.S. foreign relations.
20 Latin AmericaWilson continued to interfere in Latin American countries in an attempt to help support democracy.An example involved him negotiating exclusive rights for naval bases and a canal with Nicaragua.