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What is Development? The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology More developed countries.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Development? The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology More developed countries."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Development? The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology More developed countries (MDCs) AKA developed countries Lesser developed countries (LDCs) AKA emerging or developing countries

2 Economic indicators of development
Types of jobs Primary sector Secondary sector Tertiary sector: Quaternary, Quinary Productivity Measured by the value added per capita MDCs are more productive than LDCs Consumer goods The slide shows how economic activities are divided in a country. A less developed country has a higher percentage of primary economic activities, people working in agriculture, subsistence farming. Also, in urban areas and MDCs, More developed countries, there is a higher percentage of tertiary economic activities. This also includes quaternary activities and quinary activities. Sometimes geographers separate these into their own categories but many will keep them as sub-categories of tertiary activities.

3 How is development measured?
Social indicators of development Education and literacy The literacy rate Health and welfare Diet (adequate calories) Access to health care

4 How is development measured?
Demographic indicators of development Life expectancy Babies born today in MDCs have a life expectancy in the 70s; babies born in LDCs, in the 60s Other demographic indicators: Infant mortality Natural increase Crude birth rate

5 Human Development Index: HDI
The Human Development Index, or HDI, has three dimensions and four indicators. It is similar from the index in the past except they have changed the education indicators. It used to have literacy rate and school enrollment but they know now that students will enroll and will not attend. You can see how it has changed now. The expected amount of education attended and what the average actual number is for the country. Also, they used to use GDP per capita. Now they use the Gross national income. This divides the GNP, the total amount of goods and services globally produced by the country divided by the population. These are more accurate indicators…

6 Human Development Index HDI

7 As before, the bottom of the index is monopolized by Less Developed Countries…the top used to be monopolized by Western European countries. Now you can see the difference.

8 HDI only includes income from the formal market
HDI only includes income from the formal market. Reported to the government, pay taxes. Formal Market: Ecuador Informal Market: Ecuador

9 Informal Market: Brazil
HDI does not include income from the informal market. Not reported to the government, no taxes paid. Formal Market: Brazil Informal Market: Brazil

10 Multidimensional Poverty Index: MPI http://hdr. undp
The MPI replaced the Human Poverty Index. Many more dimensions and indicators. Study these before you move on to the next slides.

11 MPI: India Different ways of viewing the same information for a country by using different charts and graphs.

12 MPI: Sierra Leone

13 MPI Laos vs. Ukraine

14 MPI: Ukraine Point out to students that they must pay attention to the graph percentages because they change. In Sierra Leone the percentages are rather high and in the Ukraine they only go to 2% which can be misleading if they don’t pay attention.

15 MPI China

16 Models of Development Development through self-sufficiency
Characteristics: Pace of development = modest Distribution of development = even Barriers are established to protect local business Three most common barriers = (1) tariffs, (2) quotas, and (3) restricting the number of importers Two major problems with this approach: Inefficient businesses are protected A large bureaucracy is developed

17 Models of Development Rostow: International Trade Approach
This is the Rostow model of development. The Traditional Society is a basic agricultural society. If you use the U.S. for an example, the traditional society would be when we were a plantation society, the 13 colonies, etc. Pre-conditions for take off would be before our Industrial Revolution in the 1800s. This step is when your country is in stage 2 of the demographic transition model and infrastructure is in the process of construction. Take Off is the Industrial Revolution. Factories are in full-swing, secondary economic activities are in process and manufacturing is widespread. The drive to maturity would be stages 3 where tertiary activities become widespread and the last stage would be stage 4 in the DTM, post-industrial, quaternary and quinary activities are taking place.

18 International Trade Approach






24 Development through international trade
Examples of international trade approach The “four Asian dragons”: Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea Petroleum-rich Arabian Peninsula states Semi-Peripheral States Three major problems: Uneven resource distribution Increased dependence on MDCs Market decline

25 International Trade Approach

26 Models of Economic Development Wallerstein’s World System Analysis
Core: High Income High use of technology High % of tertiary activities High levels of Education by the majority of the population OECD countries G8 Semi-Periphery: used to be peripheral states Increased economic development BRICS Periphery: Low Income Low use of technology High % of primary activities Low levels of education by the majority of the population

27 Core and Periphery Model: North South Divide
Many people think the global economy can be divided between the northern and southern hemisphere. MDCs would mostly be in the north and LDCs mostly in the south excluding Australia, New Zealand, and many South Pacific Island countries.

28 BRICS: Brazil, Russia, India, China South Africa added in G8: Top State economies Canada, France, Germany, Italy, U.K., U.S.(Core) Mexico recently admitted (semi-periphery) BRICS: Brazil, Russia, India, China and now South Africa. This is an acronym that is used to describe countries with economies that have grown quickly and have become successful in the global community. These are semi-peripheral countries. G8 are MDCs which also include Mexico. That is why Mexico is not included in BRICS. Please remember these groups are human constructs and then take-off and are used commonly so people incorporate them in political and economic language.

29 BRICS: Semi-Peripheral States



32 Core-Periphery on a national scale
I used these three maps to show core with the high GDP areas, semi-peripheral as middle GDP and peripheral as low GDP. Notice that on all three maps that the core can be in different regions of the country compared to another one. China’s core area is on the south-eastern coast where the Special Economic Zone exists, the semi-peripheral area is the earlier manufacturing area and the periphery is in the rural areas, some where mountains and deserts exist.

33 The core area is where the capital used to exist and the forward district is where the capital was moved to the interior to level out population from the densely populated coastal area. It is Brasilia. The peripheral area in the north has tourism but also a new growth of manufacturing and an oil industry.

34 In Mexico the core areas are based on tourism or maquiladora regions along the coast with the U.S. These are factories that are U.S. owned that used cheaper Mexican labor to assemble goods to transport across the border due to NAFTA.

35 What is being done to increase development now
What is being done to increase development now? United Nations Millennium Development Goals In 2000 countries came together to develop the Millennium Development Goals through the United Nations. There are 8 goals with many targets to achieve. If you go to this site, click on one of the 8 in the red menu on the right side and you will see all the target goals for each one. These were supposed to be accomplished by It is a global effort.

36 Resources De Blij, Harm, J. (2010). Human Geography People, Place and Culture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Domosh, Mona, Neumann, Roderic, Price, Patricia, & Jordan-Bychkov, The Human Mosaic, A Cultural Approach to Human Geography. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. Fellman, Jerome, D., Getis, Arthur, & Getis, Judith, Human Geography, Landscapes of Human Activities. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Pulsipher, Lydia Mihelic and Alex M. and Pulsipher, World Regional Geography, Global Patterns, Local Lives. W.H. Freeman and Company New York   Rubenstein, James M. (2011). An introduction to human geography The cultural landscape. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

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