Presentation on theme: "Psychology A History of Psychology (1:3). Roots From Ancient Greece ► Plato, Socrates, and “Know thyself” Introspection – “looking within” Socrates."— Presentation transcript:
Roots From Ancient Greece ► Plato, Socrates, and “Know thyself” Introspection – “looking within” Socrates > Plato > Aristotle ► Aristotle – People are programmed to seek pleasure and avoid pain Peri Psyches “About the Mind” ► How is it a book written 2,000 years ago is still relevant?
Roots From Ancient Greece ► Supernatural forces? Punishment by Gods ► Hippocrates – abnormalities of the brain Hippocratic Oath Of the minority
The Middle Ages ► Demonic possession / Witchcraft Ready explanation ► Middle Age theory testing Sink or Swim: Does It Really Matter?
The Birth of Modern Science ► Copernicus Sun does not revolve around the Earth ► Newton Gravity and motion ► Locke Knowledge is not inborn, it is learned ► Lavoisier Chemistry
Laboratory Science ► Psychologists took their study into laboratories for intensified study ► Psychology recognized as a science
William Wundt ► Structuralism – Discovering the basic elements of conscious experience Objective sensations – sight / taste Subjective feelings – emotional responses / mental images ► Apple Example “Because of its appleness”
William James and Functionalism ► The Principles of Psychology Experience cannot be broken down, it is fluid ► Functionalism – How do mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment? Behavior patters are learned and maintained when they are successful ► Formation of habits Is everything habitual?
John B. Watson and Behaviorism ► His middle name was Broadus ► Consciousness is unscientific to study, it applies in private to that organism which is experiencing it How broad of a topic is consciousness? If psychology were to be considered a science it could only study observable behavior
B.F. Skinner and Reinforcement ► People learn in the same way animals do Rewards for doing things ► What motivates (rewards) people?
The Gestalt School ► Interpretation on information ► Gestalt – shape or form Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler ► The Gestalt School rejects the notion that experience can be broken down into parts (Structuralism) ► Also reject behaviorists views that learning is mechanical (Gestalt identifies with active and involved learning)
Gestalt ► Problem solving is accomplished by insight Insight – Reorganization of perceptions ► Appearance of the Gestalt
Freud and Psychoanalysis ► Unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determination of behavior Dream interpretation Slips of the tongue ► Freud did all his work with patients Sexual and aggressive urges undermine all decision making
Freud and Psychoanalysis ► You are controlled by your conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes Must come up with socially acceptable ways of satisfying these urges ► People ultimately want to be good