Presentation on theme: "Commas. Commas in a Series Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series A chair, a table, a lamp, and a sofa were the room’s."— Presentation transcript:
Commas in a Series Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series A chair, a table, a lamp, and a sofa were the room’s only furnishings. When all the items in a series are connected by conjunctions, no commas are necessary. It was a hot and sunny and humid day in July.
Commas in a Series Nouns that are used in pairs to express on idea are usually considered single units and should not be separated by commas. If such pairs appear with other nouns or groups of nouns in a series, they must be set off from the other items in the series. My favorite breakfast is toast, bacon and eggs, and tomato juice. Spread out your wet shoes and socks, hat, and jacket on the register.
Commas and Nonessential Elements Use commas to set off information that is not necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence (nonessential clause/phrase) A customer, complaining loudly, stepped up to the counter. She watched, puzzled, as the man in the yellow convertible drove away.
Commas and Essential Elements An essential clause is not set off by commas because the information is essential to the meaning of the sentence. People who are afraid of heights don’t like to look down from balconies or terraces. The paramedics first attended the victims who were badly hurt.
Commas and Coordinate Adjectives Use commas to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun. Mr. Jingles is a playful, affectionate, intelligent cat. Adjectives that describe size, shape, age, and material do not need to be separated by commas. Jane grew up in a small white frame house.
Commas and Compound Sentences Use a comma before and, but, for, nor, or, so, or yet when it joins two main clauses. I am not going to the concert, for I am too busy. Many prospectors searched for years, but others found gold at once.
Additional uses of Commas Use commas to set off: -interjections ( oh, well, alas, and good grief) -parenthetical expressions (in fact, on the other hand, for example, on the contrary, by the way, to be exact, after all) -conjunctive adverbs (however, more-over, therefore, consequently)
Additional use of Commas -To set off antithetical phrase- uses a word such as not or unlike to qualify what precedes it You, not I, deserve this honor. -introductory elements Well, we’d better hit the road.
Additional uses of Commas -To set off two or more introductory prepositional phrases or a single long one On the afternoon of the day of the game, we made a banner. -After all introductory adverbs and adverb clauses Surprisingly, no one objected to a new curfew. Until she arrived, I thought no one else was coming.
Additional uses of Commas -to set off a title when it follows a person’s name Alicia Wong, M.D., will speak after Jorge Gonzalez, Ph. D., has spoken. -To set off the name of a state or a country when it’s used after the name of a city, Set off the name of a city when it’s used after a street address. Don’t use a comma after the state if it’s followed by a zip code.
Additional uses of Commas Anaheim, California, is the home of Disneyland. Her address is 9 Lee Road, Nome, AK 99762. -In a date, set off the year when it’s used with both the month and the day. Don’t use a comma if only the month and the year are given. March 17, 2000, was the day I got my driver’s license.
Additional uses of Commas We moved to Dallas in September 1999. -To set off the parts of a reference that direct the reader to the exact source. Odysseus becomes reunited with his son, Telemachus, in the Odyssey, Book 16, lines 177-219. -To set off words or names in direct address Nathaniel, do you know where Katie is?
Additional uses of Commas -Place a comma after the salutation of an informal letter. Place a comma after the closing of all letters. In the inside of address, place a comma between the day and year. 90 Sherwood Road New Bedford, MA 02745 July 7, 2000 Dear Dolores, Very truly yours,