Presentation on theme: "Practice for the AHSGE. Like all other punctuation marks, a comma is used to avoid confusion in a sentence. When readers see a comma, they know there."— Presentation transcript:
Like all other punctuation marks, a comma is used to avoid confusion in a sentence. When readers see a comma, they know there is a slight pause, and they can tell how particular words or phrases relate to other parts of the sentence. Ex: Will you call Mary, Alice, Lee, and Jason, or should I? Will you call Mary Alice, Lee, and Jason or should I?
If you have a series of items, use a comma to separate the items. The new convertible 2001 Ford and Chevy pickup were involved in a wreck. How many vehicles were involved? The new convertible, 2001 Ford, and Chevy pickup…
Place a comma before a coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, yet, or for) that joins two main clauses. Ex: Today we visited the battlefield at Gettysburg, and tomorrow we will drive to Antietam.
You may omit the comma between very short main clauses that are connected by a coordinating conjunction, unless the comma is needed for clarity. Ex:Terrance opened the window and a bird flew in. Ex: Hank petted the dog and the cat meowed.
Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series. Ex: Snakes, lizards, and crocodiles are all reptiles.
No commas are necessary when all of the items are connected by conjunctions. Ex: Celia has a boa constrictor and an iguana and a chameleon. If you’re using and, or, nor do not use commas. The flag is red and white and blue. The flag might be red or white or blue. The flag is neither red nor white nor blue.
Nouns that are used in pairs are usually considered single units and should not be separated by commas. If these pairs appear with other nouns then they should be set off from the other items. (salt and pepper, thunder and lightning, red beans and rice, peanut butter and jelly, macaroni and cheese)
Place a comma between a coordinating adjective that precede a noun. To tell whether adjectives are coordinate, try to reverse their order or put the word and between them. The short, dark-haired, handsome hero saved the day. I tore off a piece of fragrant, crusty French bread.
If a quoted sentence is interrupted by words such as he said or she replied, use commas in this way: “For this contest,” he said, “ you need three pencils and two pieces of paper.”
Use commas to set off information that is non essential to the meaning of the sentence. These phrases can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. Garret, wearing a necktie for the occasion, accepted the award. Zora Neal Hurston, who was born around 1901, is a well-known writer.
The handsome man over there, the only one who works in the deli department of the local supermarket, has black hair and brown eyes. If you can take out the part in question (the part you’re questioning for commas) and it still makes sense, then you should use commas. The only man who works in the deli department of the local supermarket was arrested for stealing four apples.
Commas are used after introductory words such as exclamation, common expressions, and names used in direct address that are not necessary for the meaning of the sentence. Why, don’t you look nice tonight! Kayla, please help your brother find his tricycle. Call me back at your convenience, if you please.
Use commas to set off interjections (oh, well), parenthetical expressions on the contrary, in fact, by the way), and conjunctive adverbs( however, moreover, consequently). Yes, I’d like to try riding a camel. This train depot, by the way, is creepy.