2 Definition of Rhetoric Aristotle defined rhetoric as “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.”Other definitions of rhetoric:The art of persuasion“rhetoric is the art or science of men and women communicating with other human beings” –James J. Murphy
3 Essential Questions for Unit What techniques do writers and speakers use to deliver their messages?What is the effect of speaker, occasion, audience, purpose, and subject?How do writers and speakers appeal to the audience-ethos, logos, and pathos?What makes a speech effective?How does structure relate to purpose?Just how powerful can one word be?What are fallacies?
4 Aristotle’s Triangle/ The Rhetorical Triangle SPEAKERAUDIENCESUBJECT
5 “Near and Far”The following clip shows how even something as basic as a children’s television show employs the rhetorical triangle.Near and Far
6 Lou Gehrig “Farewell to Baseball” Speech Henry Louis "Lou" Gehrig (June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941)Played in 2,130 consecutive gamesInducted into baseball hall of fame in 1939Career cut short by ALS (which came to be known as Lou Gehrig’s diseaseLou Gehrig videoLou Gehrig audio
7 Speaker/PersonaA term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspective (real or imagined) is being advanced in speech or a piece of writing.In Sesame Street clip:Grover, a lovable monster, who is trusted by children.They view him as a friend.In Lou Gehrig’s speech:Professional baseball player: New York Yankee.Presents himself as a common man
8 AudienceOne’s listener or readership; those to whom a speech or piece of writing is addressed.In Sesame Street clip:Preschoolers/toddlersIn Lou Gehrig’s speech:Fans, fellow athletes, those in the stadium, and those who would hear the speech on the radio. He is addressing people rooting for him.
9 Subject The topic addressed in a piece of writing. In Sesame Street clip:The concept of near and farIn Lou Gehrig’s speech:His career in baseball with the YankeesHow lucky and blessed he has been in his life
10 Context The occasion or time and place In Sesame Street clip: Part of Sesame Street television seriesIn Lou Gehrig’s speech:July 4, 1939Recently revealed that Gherig was suffering from ALSAppreciation Day ceremony held in his honor at Yankee StadiumBetween a double-header
11 Purpose/Aim The goal the speaker/writer wants to achieve In Sesame Street clip:To educate and entertainIn Lou Gehrig’s speech:Remain positive/celebrate the occasionDownplay diagnosis
12 Tone The attitude expressed by the speaker In Sesame Street clip: Examine the choice of words, emotions expressed, imagery used to determine the speaker's attitude.May change within text.In Sesame Street clip:FriendlyFrustratedIn Lou Gehrig’s speech:UpbeatHumble
13 Braveheart William Wallace Identify:SpeakerAudienceSubjectContextpurpose