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Introduction to Rhetoric

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1 Introduction to Rhetoric

2 Definition of Rhetoric
Aristotle defined rhetoric as “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion.” Other definitions of rhetoric: The art of persuasion “rhetoric is the art or science of men and women communicating with other human beings” –James J. Murphy

3 Essential Questions for Unit
What techniques do writers and speakers use to deliver their messages? What is the effect of speaker, occasion, audience, purpose, and subject? How do writers and speakers appeal to the audience-ethos, logos, and pathos? What makes a speech effective? How does structure relate to purpose? Just how powerful can one word be? What are fallacies?

4 Aristotle’s Triangle/ The Rhetorical Triangle

5 “Near and Far” The following clip shows how even something as basic as a children’s television show employs the rhetorical triangle. Near and Far

6 Lou Gehrig “Farewell to Baseball” Speech
Henry Louis "Lou" Gehrig (June 19, 1903 – June 2, 1941) Played in 2,130 consecutive games Inducted into baseball hall of fame in 1939 Career cut short by ALS (which came to be known as Lou Gehrig’s disease Lou Gehrig video Lou Gehrig audio

7 Speaker/Persona A term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspective (real or imagined) is being advanced in speech or a piece of writing. In Sesame Street clip: Grover, a lovable monster, who is trusted by children. They view him as a friend. In Lou Gehrig’s speech: Professional baseball player: New York Yankee. Presents himself as a common man

8 Audience One’s listener or readership; those to whom a speech or piece of writing is addressed. In Sesame Street clip: Preschoolers/toddlers In Lou Gehrig’s speech: Fans, fellow athletes, those in the stadium, and those who would hear the speech on the radio. He is addressing people rooting for him.

9 Subject The topic addressed in a piece of writing.
In Sesame Street clip: The concept of near and far In Lou Gehrig’s speech: His career in baseball with the Yankees How lucky and blessed he has been in his life

10 Context The occasion or time and place In Sesame Street clip:
Part of Sesame Street television series In Lou Gehrig’s speech: July 4, 1939 Recently revealed that Gherig was suffering from ALS Appreciation Day ceremony held in his honor at Yankee Stadium Between a double-header

11 Purpose/Aim The goal the speaker/writer wants to achieve
In Sesame Street clip: To educate and entertain In Lou Gehrig’s speech: Remain positive/celebrate the occasion Downplay diagnosis

12 Tone The attitude expressed by the speaker In Sesame Street clip:
Examine the choice of words, emotions expressed, imagery used to determine the speaker's attitude. May change within text. In Sesame Street clip: Friendly Frustrated In Lou Gehrig’s speech: Upbeat Humble

13 Braveheart William Wallace
Identify: Speaker Audience Subject Context purpose

14 APPEALS Ethos Logos pathos

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