2 Rhetoric“the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion”The art of finding ways to persuade an audienceCan be in a variety of forms: text, pictures, films, etc.
3 The Rhetorical Situation Occasion, Exigence, Context, and PurposeOccasion-the time and place the text was written or spoken. (Like a setting in literature).Exigence-an issue, problem, or situation that causes or prompts someone to write or speakContext-the circumstances, atmosphere, attitudes, and events surrounding the text.Purpose-the goal the speaker wants to achieve
4 Rhetorical Triangle (Aristotelian Triangle) Relationship among the speaker, audience, and subjectSpeaker--the person or group who creates a textPersona- “mask,” the role the speaker plays when delivering a text or speechWas a persona used in your memoirs? How do you know? Who did the narrator/speaker sound like to you?Audience—listener, viewer, or reader of the text or performanceMultiple audiencesPrimary--those who immediately are influenced and act, persuaded by the rhetor’s persuasion. They are the mediators of change.Secondary--persuaded by the primary audience either via direct persuasion or osmossis.Tertiary audience--general public who receive the information whether they will respond or not.Subject-the topic, not the goal (purpose)Secondary Example, high school students are the primary audience for driving school ads in the school newspaper, but given they have no disposable income, they then take the ad home to their parents, who then become the secondary audience. Seeing the benefit of a coupon, the parents (secondary audience) enable the primary audience by financing their driver’s education.Tertiary example: Citizens with no children driving by a DART bus bearing a driver’s education ad comprise the tertiary audience. They receive the discourse by happenstance and may or may not act as an agent. Perhaps they remember the ad and tell a friend who has a teenager needing to learn to drive.
11 Pathos (Emotion)Emotions, values, desires, hopes, fears, and prejudicesFigurative language, personal anecdotes, and vivid images“Two Ways of Seeing a River”—What methods does Twain use to evoke pathos?Also largely created through diction (word choice).