Presentation on theme: "Types of Agriculture and Farming Practices"— Presentation transcript:
1 Types of Agriculture and Farming Practices LEARNING OBJECTIVESTO DEFINE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGRICULTURETO EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENT FACTORS AFFECTING THESE TYPES OF AGRICULTURE
2 Pastoral Farmingis farming related to livestock. The livestock usually graze on naturally-grown grass and other vegetation. Some pastoral farmers grow crops, but instead of selling the harvest, they feed it to livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep etc.) so that they stay healthy for optimum production of meat, wool, milk and eggs.
4 Commercial Farming Plantations, etc The production of crops for sale, crops intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets (e.g. supermarkets), and any non-food crops such as cotton and tobacco. Commercial agriculture includes livestock production and livestock grazing. Commercial agriculture does not include crops grown for household consumption (e.g. backyard garden or from a vegetable garden or a few fruit trees.)
5 Subsistence Farmingis self-sufficient farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their family. The typical subsistence farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to eat during the year. Planting decisions are made with an eye toward what the family will need during the coming year, rather than market prices.
6 Organicrelies on crop rotation, green manure, compost, biological pest control, and mechanical cultivation to maintain soil productivity and control pests, excluding or strictly limiting the use of synthetic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms
7 Intensive Agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital, labour, or heavy usage of technologies such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers relative to land area.
8 Nomadic Grazingis an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labour, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed. It most commonly refers to sheep and cattle farming in areas with low agricultural productivity
9 Wet Rice?Padi Cultivation An intensive subsistence farming practice on arable land in the tropics.
10 Shifting CultivationSubsistence farming in the tropics where land is cleared every few years and used and then forest regrows.
11 Agricultural Techniques to Increase yields IrrigationChemicalsFertilizerspesticidesMechanizationtractorscombinesCapitalMoneyHigh Yield Varieties of seeds (HYV’s)GMO’s
12 The Green RevolutionThis involved developing new high yield crops, initially in Mexico, which were then used in countries such as India.Their effect was to increase yields dramatically, and sometimes allow an extra crop each year to grown.The farmers quickly produced greater amounts of crops and there fore produced larger profit, from which they could buy improved machinery.There were some disadvantages of the scheme however.The new seeds were very expensive to buy and required a lot of expensive fertilisers and pesticides to ensure that they grew properly.This meant that many of the poor farmers just couldn't afford the new crops.Some farmers fell heavily into debt trying to finance buying the new crops.
13 Modern Agricultural Practices and the Adverse Effects Chemical PollutionOver cultivation and soil erosionWater ImpactsDam and salinization of irrigation waterHuman ImpactsWorld Trade
14 PollutionThe increased use of pesticides and fertilisers has led to air and water pollution.Chemicals used on the fields, are easily washed into rivers by rainwater and can seriously affect the fish, birds and plants of the river.They can also leach through the ground and into rivers. Fertilisers in water can cause rapid algae growth.This then can lead to the water being starved of oxygen so there is not enough for other plants, and especially fish.This process is called eutrophication.
15 Soil ErosionThe removal of hedgerows and the change from pasture to arable farming has led to many cases of increased soil erosion.The hedges protected the soil from wind erosion, and their removal created huge fields across which the wind could race.Arable crops do not bind the soil together as well as grass and so more soil was eroded by rainwater run-off.Also the crops did not cover the ground all year round and when the fields were ploughed they were even more susceptible to rapid erosion, and flooding.
16 Water ImpactsDams and their consequencesSalinization
17 Human Impacts World Trade “Big” versus “small” farmers Supply and Demand“Big” versus “small” farmers
18 Sustainable Strategies Appropriate technologyIrrigationOrganic FertilizersMixed CroppingNatural PredatorsBiotechnology for seed productionIntegration with Bio “PowerBio fuels
19 ConclusionTypes of FarmingGreen RevolutionSustainable Farming