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Movement to create a better America (Early – Mid 1800s)

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Presentation on theme: "Movement to create a better America (Early – Mid 1800s)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Movement to create a better America (Early – Mid 1800s)
Reforming Society Movement to create a better America (Early – Mid 1800s)

2 National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860
Why now? Nativism: hatred toward foreigners

3 Influences Religious 2nd Great Awakening:
- Movement to revive American religious faith - Improve self and the world

4 The Second Great Awakening
“Spiritual Reform From Within” [Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Education Abolitionism Project researching, maybe presentation, or news article or etc. Wilderness Utopias Temperance Transcendentalism Women’s Rights

5 1. Religion Revivals lead to religious split
Presbyterian, Congregationalists, Unitarians North/East Methodist, Baptists South/West

6 Influences Philosophical: Transcendentalism
- New England literary movement - Beauty and goodness in all individuals - Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau

7 6. Transcendentalism The cultivation of reasoning (black/white)
“Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe Thus, the role of the reformer was to restore man to that divinity which God had endowed them Spread peace and Justice, educate

8 Transcendentalist Thinking
Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof: The infinite benevolence of God. The infinite benevolence of nature. The divinity of man. They instinctively rejected all secular authority and the authority of organized churches and the Scriptures, of law, or of conventions

9 The Transcendentalist Agenda
Give freedom to the slave. Give well-being to the poor and the miserable. Give learning to the ignorant. Give health to the sick. Give peace and justice to society.

10 “The American Scholar” (1837) Resistance to Civil Disobedience (1849)
6. Transcendentalist Intellectuals/Writers Concord, MA Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau Nature (1832) Self-Reliance (1841) Walden (1854) “The American Scholar” (1837) Resistance to Civil Disobedience (1849) R3-1/3/4/5

11 Areas of Reform Utopian Societies Temperance Educational Reform
Women’s Rights Prison and the Treatment of the Insane Abolition

12 Utopian Communities Goal: Separate from corrupt society and create ideal society - Brook Farm: - New Harmony - Oneida Result: fail to last long term, but inspired many to fix society

13 John Humphrey Noyes (1811-1886)
The Oneida Community New York, 1848 Millenarianism --> the 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred. Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past. all residents married to each other. carefully regulated “free love.” John Humphrey Noyes ( )

14 Temperance Goal: Preach the evils of alcohol
Women & the Protestant church lead reform movement Domestic Abuse Infidelity Results: Some states pass prohibition laws

15 Educational Reform Goal: Protect the republic by educating the electorate - Government funded schools - Mandatory attendance laws - Teacher training schools Horace Mann

16 Religious Training  Secular Education
7. Educational Reform Religious Training  Secular Education MA  always on the forefront of public educational reform * 1st state to establish tax support for local public schools. By 1860 every state offered free public education to whites * US had one of the highest literacy rates.

17 Horace Mann (1796-1859) “Father of American Education”
Children are clay Discouraged corporal punishment State teacher-training programs R3-6

18 Women’s Rights Goal: Improve the status of women and expand their role in America - Seneca Falls Convention: Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions "it is the duty of the women in this country to secure to themselves their sacred right to the franchise.”

19 Early 19c Women Unable to vote. Legal status of a minor
Single  could own her own property Married  no control over her property or children Could not initiate divorce. Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without husband’s permission

20 Women’s Suffrage The right of women to vote in political elections
Elizabeth Cady Staton, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony leaders of movement

21 Prison and the Insane Goal: Improve the conditions of prisoners and mentally ill Dorothea Dix: Aid for the mentally ill - Rehabilitation of Prisoners - New institutions for ill

22 ABOLITION Goal: End Slavery Why???
Against the ideas of liberty & equality Send the ex-slaves back to Africa American Colonization Society Creates Liberia for freed slaves

23 Abolition Emancipation: Complete freedom for the slaves
- Strongest support in the North

24 -William Lloyd Garrison
Abolitionists -William Lloyd Garrison “The Liberator” “I will not retreat a single inch, AND I WILL BE HEARD”

25 Abolitionists Sojournor Truth - Freed northern slave
Frederick Douglass - Runaway slave Bought freedom Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas

26 Response to Abolition Northern Fears: - Disturb social order - May lead to civil war - Take jobs away from Northerners - South would not pay debts to North Southern Fears: - Loss of property - Inspired slave revolts

27 Lasting Impact - Abolitionists bring publicity to the horrors of slavery - Southerners develop a deep distrust that the North trying to end slavery

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