4 PunctuationApostrophes: Used to indicate ownership, also to show that certain letters in a word are missing. Also if the noun is plural the apostrophe goes after the s.EX. Ana’s strawberries = ownershipMen’s Restroom = ownershipI’m (I am) You’re (you are)The witches’ broom (plural)
5 PunctuationSemicolons: Used to separate sentences that are grammatically independent.EX. Tracy was fifteen minutes late to her appointment; she got a ticket on the way there.EX. I’m on a diet this month; I can’t even have Starbucks!COMPLETE SENTECE+ ; +COMPLETE SENTECE
6 PunctuationQuotation Marks: Are used to represent exact language that was written or spoken, or to quote a phrase.EX. The teacher said, “ Don’t come to class late, it will count as tardy!”EX. The school’s policy on bullying states that “students can rely on staff to investigate any complaint made.”Period: Is known as a full stop. It shows when a sentence or statement has ended or finished.
7 PunctuationCommas: Used to separate words and word groups that contain a series of 3 or moreEx. On our way to Los Angeles we passed San Jose, Bakersfield, Burbank, and Pasadena.Use a comma to separate two adjectives when the word and can be inserted betweenEx. He was a lonely, stubborn man in his eighties.
8 Italics and Underlining Italics and underlining are both used in the same context. Some professors prefer one over the other.They are also used for book/magazine titles, movie titles, collections of pieces, names of vehicles, titles of television shows and musical compositionsEX. Shakespeare's Othello was one of her favorite plays.EX. Have you read Fifty Shades of Grey?EX. I saw Insidious 2 this weekend; it was beyond terrifying.
9 Run-On SentencesA run- on sentence is a sentence with two or more independent clauses that are joined without the appropriate punctuation or conjunction.EX. She only calls me when she needs me she never calls me to check on meCorrect: She only calls me when she needs me, but she never calls me to check on me.EX. Brian usually runs on the track near the football field however during the winter he runs at the indoor track near his house.Correct: Brian usually runs on the track near the football field. However, during the winter he runs at the indoor track near his house.
10 A few capitalization rules… Capitalize the first word of a sentenceCapitalize proper nounsCapitalize major words in titles of books, songs, and playsCapitalize days of the weeks, months of the year, and holidaysCapitalize seasons when used in a title, but not if they are used generallyCapitalize countries, nationalities, and languagesCapitalize trademarks
11 Adjectives & VerbsAdjectives: are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence.EX. The house is beautiful.EX. The old, squeaky rocking chair was beautiful antique.Verbs: verbs are action words. They express an action or state of being.EX. Kelly auditioned for the lead actors part, but she didn’t get called back.EX. Marcus believed the psychic’s predictions, though they never came true.
12 Verb Tense Consistency The tense of the verb tells the reader about the time relationship. Tense consistency makes sure the writer maintains the verb tense, and does not change it throughout the text.Past: verbs that take place in the pastPresent: verbs that takes place in the presentFuture: verbs that will take place in the future