Presentation on theme: "What is weather? 1 Weather Factors"— Presentation transcript:
1 What is weather?1Weather FactorsWeather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place.Weather describes conditions such as air pressure, wind, temperature, and the amount of moisture in the air.The Sun’s heat evaporates water into the atmosphere forming clouds; water returns to Earth as rain or snow; the Sun also heats the air.
2 What is weather?1Air TemperaturesAir is made up of molecules that are always moving randomly, even when there’s no wind.Temperature is a measure of air molecule movement.Energy from the Sun causes air molecules to move rapidly; the temperature is high, and it feels warm.When less of the Sun’s energy reaches air molecules, they move less rapidly and it feels cold. The temperature is lower.
3 Wind 1 Air moving in a specific direction is called wind. What is weather?1WindAir moving in a specific direction is called wind.As the Sun heats the air, it expands, becomes less dense, rises, and has low atmospheric pressure.Cooler air is denser and tends to sink, causing high atmospheric pressure.
4 What is weather?1WindWind results because air moves from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure.
5 What is weather?1WindWind direction can be measured using a wind vane which has an arrow that points in the direction the wind is blowing from. The name of the wind tells you the direction the wind is blowing from. Forexample, an east wind blows from east to west.
6 Wind 1 Wind speed can be measured using an anemometer. What is weather?1WindWind speed can be measured using an anemometer.Anemometers have rotating cups that spin faster when the wind is strong.
7 Humidity 1 Heat evaporates water into the atmosphere. What is weather?1HumidityHeat evaporates water into the atmosphere.Water vapor molecules fit into spaces between the air molecules.The amount of water vapor present in the air is called humidity.
8 Humidity 1 Air doesn‘t always contain the same amount of water vapor. What is weather?1HumidityAir doesn‘t always contain the same amount of water vapor.Warm air can hold more water vapor than cool air, tending to make warm air more humid.Cooler air holds less water vapor than warm air, tending to make it less humid.
9 What is weather?1HumidityAir is said to be saturated when it holds the maximum amount of water vapor possible at that temperature.
10 What is weather?1Relative HumidityRelative humidity is a measure of the amount of water vapor present in the air compared to what it can hold at a specific temperature.If you hear a weather forecaster say that the relative humidity is 50 percent, it means that the air contains 50 percent of the water vapor needed for the air to be saturated.
11 What is weather?1Relative HumidityAir at 25°C is saturated when it contains 22 g of water vapor per cubic meter of air.The relative humidity is 100 percent.
12 What is weather?1Relative HumidityIf air at 25°C contains 11 g of water vapor per cubic meter, what is the relative humidity?(50 %)
13 What is weather?1Dew PointWhen the temperature drops, less water vapor can be present in air.The water vapor in air will condense to a liquid or form ice crystals.The temperature at which air is saturated and condensation forms is the dew point.
14 What is weather?1Dew PointWhen air near the ground cools to its dew point, water vapor condenses and forms dew.If temperatures are near or below 0°C, frost will form instead of dew.
15 What is weather?1Forming CloudsClouds form as warm, moist air is forced upward and cools.At a certain height, the air cools to the dew point and condensation begins. Water vapor condenses on tiny particles in the air (dust, smoke, salt) to form droplets of liquid water. These droplets remain suspended in the air.Billions of these droplets form a cloud.
17 Classifying Clouds 1 Clouds are classified mainly by shape and height. What is weather?1Classifying CloudsClouds are classified mainly by shape and height.The shape and height of clouds vary with temperature, pressure, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.The three main cloud types are stratus, cumulus, and cirrus.
18 What is weather?1Shape - StratusClouds that form smooth, even sheets or layers in the sky are called stratus clouds.These clouds form low in the sky and often cover the entire sky.When air is cooled to its dew point near the ground, it forms a stratus cloud called fog.
19 What is weather?1Shape - CumulusCumulus clouds are masses of puffy, white clouds, often with flat bases.They sometimes tower to great heights and can be associated with fair weather or thunderstorms.
20 What is weather?1Shape - CirrusCirrus clouds are high, thin, white, feathery clouds made of ice crystals.Cirrus clouds are associated with fair weather, but they can indicate approaching storms.
21 Height 1 Some prefixes describe the height of the cloud base. What is weather?1HeightSome prefixes describe the height of the cloud base.The prefix cirro- describes high clouds, alto- describes middle-elevation clouds, and strato- refers to clouds at low elevations.
22 Rain- or Snow-Producing Clouds What is weather?1Rain- or Snow-Producing CloudsClouds associated with rain or snow often have the suffix or prefix nimbus attached to their name. The term nimbus is Latin for “dark rain cloud.”The water content of these clouds is so high that little sunlight can pass through them.
23 Rain- or Snow-Producing Clouds What is weather?1Rain- or Snow-Producing CloudsWhen a cumulus cloud grows into a thunderstorm, it is called a cumulonimbus cloud.Nimbostratus clouds are flat, layered clouds that cover the sky and bring long, steady rain or snowfall.
25 Precipitation 1 Precipitation is water falling from clouds. What is weather?1PrecipitationPrecipitation is water falling from clouds.Precipitation occurs when water droplets in clouds combine and grow large enough to fall to Earth.Air temperature determines whether water forms rain, snow, sleet, or hail—the four main types of precipitation.
26 What is weather?1PrecipitationDrops of water falling in temperatures above freezing fall as rain.Snow forms when the air temperature is freezing.
27 What is weather?1PrecipitationSleet forms when raindrops pass through a layer of freezing air near Earth’s surface, forming ice pellets.Cinda, the other images requested from this figure asked for the art only. I don’t know if they wanted it for this one or not.
28 Precipitation 1 Hail is precipitation in the form of lumps of ice. What is weather?1PrecipitationHail is precipitation in the form of lumps of ice.Hail forms in cumulonimbus clouds of a thunderstorm when water freezes in layers around a small nucleus of ice.
29 Weather Patterns2Weather ChangesBecause air and moisture move in the atmosphere, weather constantly changes.
30 Weather Changes—Air Masses Weather Patterns2Weather Changes—Air MassesAn air mass is a large body of air that hasproperties similar to the part of Earth’s surface over which it develops.Six major air masses affect weather in the Unites States.
31 Weather Changes—Air Masses Weather Patterns2Weather Changes—Air MassesAir masses can be classified according to temperature and humidity.They can be warm or cold, and moist or dry.
32 Highs and Lows 2 Weather has high- and low-pressure systems. Weather Patterns2Highs and LowsWeather has high- and low-pressure systems.Stormy weather is associated with low pressure areas.Fair weather is associated with high pressure areas.Air pressure is measured using a barometer.
33 Weather Patterns2FrontsA boundary between two different air masses is called a front. This is an area where two air masses meet and do not mix.Clouds, precipitation, and storms sometimes occur at frontal boundaries.There are four types of fronts:Cold frontWarm frontOccluded frontStationary front
34 Fronts - Cold front 2 Weather Patterns A cold front occurs when a cold air mass moves under a warm air mass.Cold fronts move quickly, so they can cause abrupt weather changes, including thunderstorms.After a cold front passes, cool, dry air moves in, often bringing clear skies and cooler temperatures.
35 Fronts - Warm front 2 Weather Patterns A warm front occurs when a warm air mass moves over a cold air mass.Warm fronts move more slowly than cold fronts, so the weather may be rainy or foggy for several days.After a warm front passes through an area, the weather is likely to be warmer and more humid.
36 Fronts - Occluded front Weather Patterns2Fronts - Occluded frontAn occluded front involes three air masses. It occurs when a warm air mass is caught between two cooler air masses and pushed upward.At an occluded front, the temperature near the ground becomes cooler. The rising warm air may cause the weather to turn cloudy and rainy or snowy.
37 Fronts - Stationary front Weather Patterns2Fronts - Stationary frontA stationary front occurs when a cold air mass and a warm air mass meet and neither has enough force to move the other. The air masses and their boundaries stop advancing.Stationary fronts may bring many days of clouds and precipitation.
38 Fronts 2 Weather Patterns What type of weather is brought by each front?
39 Weather Forecasts3Weather ObservationsA meteorologist is a person who studies and predicts the weather.Meteorologists take measurements of temperature, air pressure, winds, humidity, and precipitation.
40 Weather Forecasts3Weather ObservationsComputers, weather satellites, Doppler radar, and instruments attached to balloons are used to gather data.Weather balloon launchNOAA-18 Weather satellite in orbit
41 Weather Forecasts3Weather MapsMeteorologists at the National Weather Service use the information provided by weather instruments to make weather maps.Weather maps are used to make predictions about future weather patterns.However, meteorologists cannot always predict the weather exactly because conditions can change rapidly.
42 Weather Maps - Station Models Weather Forecasts3Weather Maps - Station ModelsMeteorologists record the weather data on a map by usingsymbols. This forms a station model, which shows weather conditions at a specific location.
43 Weather Forecasts3Weather MapsWeather maps have lines called isotherms that connect locations of equal temperature.
44 Weather Forecasts3Weather MapsAn isobar is a line drawn to connect points of equal atmospheric pressure.On a weather map, pressure areas are drawn as circles with the word High or Low in the middle of the circle.
45 Weather Maps 3 Fronts are drawn as lines and symbols. Weather Forecasts3Weather MapsFronts are drawn as lines and symbols.In general, weather fronts move from west to east.