Shock Generator Caution Amps On Intensity Resistance Amp Meter Slight Shock Moderate Shock Strong Shock Very Strong Shock Intense Shock Extreme Shock Danger XXX Milgram Experiment Two thirds of participants delivered the maximum 450 volts to the learner!
Descriptive Statistics: Statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects. Mathematical summaries of results.
Statistical Evaluation Frequency distribution: A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs. RankDegree of agreementNumber 1Strongly agree25 2Agree somewhat35 3Not sure20 4Disagree somewhat15 5Strongly disagree5
Statistical Evaluation Histogram: A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution. The height of the bars indicates the frequency of a group of scores.
Measures of Central Tendency AVERAGES 1.Mean 2.Median 3.Mode
Measures of Central Tendency Mean: Most commonly used to describe a set of data. Calculated by adding all the scores and dividing by the total number of scores. *What is the mean of the following numbers? 2, 4, 8, 9, 7, 3, 9
Measures of Central Tendency Median: The middle score in a list of scores arranged from highest to lowest. *What is the median in this number list? 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 Answer: 5 Find the median: 11, 6, 9, 12, 4, 7, 2, 5
Measures of Central Tendency What happens if there is more than mode??? Example: 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 9
Measures of Central Tendency The distribution is called BIMODAL. 2 modes = bimodal What is the mode? 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 9 ANSWER: 4 AND 7
Measures of Variation Variance: A measure of difference or spread (high or low). Range: Subtract the lowest score in the data set from the highest score and add 1. *If the highest quiz grade was 12 and the lowest quiz grade was 0, what is the range?
Sampling Random sample: A sample group of subjects selected by chance (without bias). Representative sample: A sample that reflects the distribution of important variables in the larger population in which the researchers are interested.
Correlation: The measure of a relationship between two variables. Correlation Coefficient: A mathematical estimate of the relationship between two variables. -1.0 to +1.0 0 = No Relationship
Statistical Evaluation POSITIVE CORRELATION: + As one variable increases, the second variable increases. Example??? NEGATIVE CORRELATION: - As one variable increases, the second variable decreases. Example???
ParticipantIncome Years of Education #1125,00019 #2100,00020 #340,00016 #435,00016 #541,00018 #629,00012 #735,00014 #824,00012 #950,00016 #1060,00017