2 Mayans (p. 468-473) Geography Cities and Trade Society and religion Lush rainforest covered most of the land.Mayans cleared some of the land for farming purposes. Rainforest provided resources such as food for hunting and building materials.Cities and TradeCities started out as small villages, but eventually grew into large city-states. Mayans traded with other villages in Mesoamerica which provided the Mayans with wealth and political power.Society and religionEach city-state had its own king and form of government. The king was believed to be descended from the gods. The Mayans were polytheistic. Each god was believed to control a different aspect of daily life. Offered blood and human sacrifice to the gods.AchievementsScience: observatories, two calendars to guide farming and religious eventsMath: number system, measure timeWriting: writing system similar to hieroglyphics, wrote in books, oral storytellingArt and ArchitectureDeclineHistorians aren’t sure exactly why the Mayan civilization declined! Possibly:-Rebellion against rulers-Warfare between cities-Not enough food to feed everyone-Climate change (droughts)
4 activityImagine that you are living in a Mayan city during the Classic Age.Option 1: The king has asked you to create a mural showing Maya achievements in science, math, writing, and architecture. On the front, illustrate the four types of Maya achievements. On the back, write a caption explaining which achievements you have illustrated.Option 2: “Step into the Picture” on page Write a short narrative telling a story about someone living in this Mayan city!*Finish this for homework!
5 Aztecs (p. 474-478) Rise Height Fall Early Aztecs were farmers War was a key factor in Aztec rise to powerCotton, gold, and food became vital to their economyAztecs had a huge trade networkCapital: TenochtitlanHeightEmperors were the most important person in societyUpper class: nobles, warriors, priestsMiddle class: merchants, artisansLower class: farmers, laborers, slavesPolytheistic: worshipped gods who controlled nature and human activityPracticed human sacrificeArchitecture (stone pyramids)Art: jewelry, masks, clothLearning: astronomy, detailed written records, oral traditionFallConquistadors (Spanish conquerors) arrives seeking to find gold, land, and convert natives to Catholicism.The Spanish brought down the empire through warfare (horses and weapons) and deadly disease (smallpox).
7 Conquest by the Spanish The Incas(p. 479)GeographyThe area included coastal deserts, snowy mountains, fertile valleys, and thick forests.GovernmentIncas had a strong central government. To unify the empire, the Incas used Quechua as their official language. To keep the people from having too much power the emperor would place trusted officials in charge of the villages.Society~12 million people lived in the Inca Empire.Two main social classes; Upper class (emperor, priest, and government officials) and Lower class (farmers, artisans, and servants)ReligionIncas believed that their rulers were related to the sun god. Incas often sacrificed llamas, cloth, and food.AchievementsIncas were known as master builders due to their expert masonry (stonework). They built a network of roads and two highways that ran the length of the empire.Art: pottery, gold and silver jewelry, textilesNo written language. Passed down their history orally through songs and stories.Conquest by the SpanishIn the 1530s, Spanish conquistadors came to the Inca empire and captured their emperor. Despite an offering of 24 tons in precious metals, the Spanish killed the emperor and ruled the region for the next 300 years.